22.214.171.124 Symptoms include decreased limp temperature, increased
core temperature, decreased urine output, and mottled
skin colour (Cuadrado, 2002).
1.2.3 Radial pulse is lower than
apical pulse (Lippincott,
1.2.4 Abnormal ECG findings
126.96.36.199 Atrial activity is no longer represented by P waves but by
fibrillatory waves (f waves). This rhythm may be either
sustained or paroxysmal (occurring in bursts).
188.8.131.52 Irregular pulse rhythm
184.108.40.206 Undetectable atrial heart
220.127.116.11 Ventricular heart rate around 130 beats per
18.104.22.168 PQR - undetectable
22.214.171.124 T wave -
126.96.36.199 QT - unmeasurable
188.8.131.52 QRS complex - 0.08 second
184.108.40.206 The first figure shows a healthy ECG
record. The second figure shows an ECG
with atrial fibrillation (Queiroz, Junior,
Lucena, & Barros, 2018).
2 Diagnostic Testing
3.1 Patients with may also experience increased
morbidity and mortality from complications such as
heart failure, strokes, hemorrhagic and
thromboembolic complications, heart attacks and
cardiovascular death (Jankowska-Polańska, Kaczan,
Lomper, Nowakowski, & Dudek, 2018; Mogensen et
3.1.1 Roughly 44% of those with one of
the three types of atrial fibrillation
had a stroke.
3.1.2 Approximately 43% of those with any of the types of
atrial fibrillation have been hospitalized for heart failure
at some point.
3.1.3 Around 69% of the deaths of those with atrial
fibrillation was due to a heart attack or other
sudden cardiovascular event.
5.1.1 Cardiac ablation involves using a probe with an electrode at the tip on cardiac tissue with
the goal of scarring the area to prevent an electrical current from being conducted through
220.127.116.11.1 Segmental Pulmonary Vein Ablation: the
pulmonary vein is isolated from the left
atrium by applying lesions at the ostial
region of the pulmonary veins.
18.104.22.168.2 Circumferential pulmonary vein ablation: surrounds the
pulmonary veins in linear lesions on the left atrial
myocardium outside the pulmonary vein ostia.
22.214.171.124 Catheter ablation is the procedure in which cardiac ablation is performed. It involves precisely
inserting a catheter through the femoral vein to access the heart in order to perform the ablation
5.2.1 Heart Rate Control. In order for heart rate
to be considered controlled it must meet
three goals: controlled at rest, controlled
during activity, and regularization of the
heart rate (Natale & Jalife, 2008).
126.96.36.199 Diltiazem or verapamil should be used as the preferred method over digoxin when using
pharmacotherapy in controlling heart rate as it has a better effect on the control of heart rate
during activity. Diltiazem or verapamil both have a rapid onset of action; this is especially
important in acute situations. β-blockers are the best at controlling heart rate with activity.
Atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol, and nadolol are all effective at controlling heart rates at rest and