DNA polymerase (plants and animals)
(forms and repairs DNA)
(water + carbon dioxide = glucose)
specific 3D shape of the active site has been changed, will no longer fit the substrate (generally irreversible)
Below freezing point a solid forms and the enzymes can't work.
lower - slows down
higher - speeds up
human enzymes 37 degrees
plants 20-30 degrees
shape is fully lost at about 0 degrees ( denatured)
6-8 (most enzymes)
7 - ideal (most enzymes)
pepsin in the stomach is 2
Enzyme and substrate concentration.
6 Induced fit model
In the past - lock and key hypothesis (active site rigid in structure)
Now- active site changes shape slightly to form an enzyme-substrate complex forming a product.
7 Immobilised enzymes
attached to or fixed to, each other or to an inert material.
not free in solution
The use of biological materials (organisms, organelles, enzymes) to manufacture commercial products or treatment procedures of commercial, medical, or scientific interest
e.g. drugs, vaccines, antibiotics
sucrose ---> fructose and galactose (sucrase)
Immobilised enzymes used in urine testing for illegal drugs and other chemicals.
Stainless steel vessel used to produce useful substances from the activities of biological agents.
Adsorption - physically attached to inactive supports suchh as glass, beads, ceramics, cellulose particles or artificial polymers such as gels (all insoluble)
Enclosed by a membrane
Trapped in a gel
Bonded to a support
Bonded to each other
can be reused - cheaper
recovered at the end of the process - rapidly purified (product)
stabilises the enzyme - less needed
cheaper - just as efficient
penicillin ----> new antibiotic
glucose ---> fructose (sweeten soft drinks)
lactose ----> glucose + galactose (sweeter sugars)
(replace condensed milk in the manufacture of soft toffee and caramel).