eimearkelly3
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

Leaving Certificate Biology (Enzymes) Mind Map on Enzymes, created by eimearkelly3 on 08/08/2013.

376
0
0
Tags
eimearkelly3
Created by eimearkelly3 about 6 years ago
Enzyme Regulation - Irreversible Covalent Modification
daniel.praecox
Enzymes
daniel.praecox
Enzymes
eimearkelly3
Nazi Germany Dates
Georgina.Smith
Realidad De Nuestra Identidad Cultural
53831
Enzymes
daniel.praecox
Biology AQA 3.1.2 Enzyme Properties
evie.daines
Chapter 9 Enzymes Revision Questions
John Loughlin
Biology- Nutrients and Enzymes, Animal Nutrition
Alecea Sin
Enzyme Regulation - Reversible Covalent Modification
daniel.praecox
Enzymes
1 Proteins
1.1 Catalysts
1.1.1 Biological
1.1.2 Organic
2 Processes
2.1 Photosynthesis
2.2 Respiration
2.3 Digestion
2.4 Protein synthesis
2.5 Cell division
3 Catabolic enzymes
3.1 BIG --> small
4 Anabolic enzymes

Annotations:

  • DNA polymerase (plants and animals) (forms and repairs DNA) photosynthesis (water + carbon dioxide = glucose)
5 Denaturation

Annotations:

  • specific 3D shape of the active site has been changed, will no longer fit the substrate (generally irreversible) Temperature Below freezing point a solid forms and the enzymes can't work. lower - slows down higher - speeds up human enzymes 37 degrees plants 20-30 degrees shape is fully lost at about 0 degrees ( denatured) PH 6-8 (most enzymes) 7 - ideal (most enzymes) pepsin in the stomach is 2 Enzyme and substrate concentration.
6 Induced fit model

Annotations:

  • In the past - lock and key hypothesis (active site rigid in structure) Now- active site changes shape slightly to form an enzyme-substrate complex forming a product.
7 Immobilised enzymes

Annotations:

  • attached to or fixed to, each other or to an inert material. not free in solution
7.1 Bioprocessing

Annotations:

  • The use of biological materials (organisms, organelles, enzymes) to manufacture commercial products or treatment procedures of commercial, medical, or scientific interest e.g. drugs, vaccines, antibiotics sucrose ---> fructose and galactose (sucrase) Immobilised enzymes used in urine testing for illegal drugs and other chemicals.
7.2 Bioreactor

Annotations:

  • Stainless steel vessel used to produce useful substances from the activities of biological agents.
7.3 Methods

Annotations:

  • Adsorption - physically attached to inactive supports suchh as glass, beads, ceramics, cellulose particles or artificial polymers such as gels (all insoluble) Enclosed by a membrane Trapped in a gel Bonded to a support Bonded to each other
7.4 Advantages

Annotations:

  • can be reused  - cheaper recovered at the end of the process - rapidly purified (product) stabilises the enzyme - less needed cheaper - just as efficient
7.5 Uses

Annotations:

  • penicillin ----> new antibiotic (penicillin acylase) glucose ---> fructose (sweeten soft drinks)  (glucose isomerase) lactose ----> glucose + galactose (sweeter sugars) (lactase) (replace condensed milk in the manufacture of soft toffee and caramel).

Media attachments