Internal factors affecting gender difference in achievement

Leanna V
Mind Map by Leanna V, updated more than 1 year ago
Leanna V
Created by Leanna V over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Internal factors affecting gender difference in achievement, created by Leanna V on 11/11/2014.

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Internal factors affecting gender difference in achievement
1 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES POLICIES
1.1 The people who run the system are more aware of gender issues and believe that boys and girls are equally capable. This influences policies such as WISE (Women Into Science and Engineering and GIST (Girls Into Science and Technology). Policies like this encourage girls to pursue careers in non-traditional areas. The introduction of the NATIONAL CURRICULUM helped to remove some gender equality by making science compulsory, equalising opportunities (KELLY). BOALER suggests that because many barriers are removed and schooling has become more meritocratic, girls who generally work harder, achieve more.
2 POSITIVE ROLE MODELS IN SCHOOL
2.1 ^ in the proportion of female teachers/headteachers. These women having authority act as role models for girls because they had to study for quite some time, showing them what they could achieve and that goals can be non-traditional.
3 GCSE & COURSEWORK
3.1 GORARD found that the gender gap in achievement was fairly constant until the year GCSE & coursework was introduced. He concludes that the gender gap is a 'product of the changed system of assessment rather than any ore general failing of boys. MITSOS & BROWNE agree and found that girls are better at coursework because they are more conscientious, better at meeting dealines and spend more time on their work - therefore, girls benefit. Greater use of oral exams also benefit girls because they generally develop better language skills. This may be due to the early gender role socialisation.
3.2 ELWOOD argues that after analysing the weighting of coursework and written exams, exams have more influence on final grades.
4 TEACHER ATTENTION
4.1 Girls are generally more cooperative, so teachers respond more positively to them. This could then lead to SFP, which then raises girls' self esteem and makes them want to achieve more. FRENCH found that boys got more attention because they had to be reprimanded more. FRANCIS found that boys were more harshly disciplined and picked on by teachers, who had lower expectations (SFP). SWANN found gender difference in communication styles - girls were more cooperative and patient whereas boys could be quite hostile and like interrupting.
5 CHALLENGING STEREOTYPES IN THE CURRICULUM
5.1 WEINER argues that since the 1980s, teachers have challenged stereotypes and in general, sexist images have been removed from learning materials. This presents a more positive image of what women can do, thus inspiring girls at school.
6 SELECTION AND LEAGUE TABLE
6.1 JACKSON argues that league tables place a high value on educational achievement and girls seem more attractive to good schools whereas boys aren't. This could lead to SFP, since girls are more likely to be recruited into a good school, they are more likely to work hard and do well. SLEE argues that boys are less attractive to schools because they are more likely to suffer from behavioural difficulties and are 4x more likely to be excluded. Boys are seen as 'liability students and therefore they may not try as hard.
7 VIEWS ON GIRLS' ACHIEVEMENT
7.1 LIBERAL FEMINISTS - they celebrate progress so far by improving achievement. Further progress will be made by the continuing development of equal opportunities. Similar to the functionist view + meritocracy.
7.2 RADICAL FEMINISTS - the system remains patriarchal: sexual harassment of girls continues in school, more male headteachers, women are under-represented in the curriculum.
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