B4 - The Processes of Life

Lauren Healey
Mind Map by Lauren Healey, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Healey
Created by Lauren Healey over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on B4 - The Processes of Life, created by Lauren Healey on 11/11/2014.

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B4 - The Processes of Life
1 Enzymes
1.1 PROTEINS that SPEED UP a chemical reaction
1.1.1 instructions for making enzymes are found in a cells gene
1.2 chemical reactions - either split apart or join together
1.2.1 substrate is a molecule changed in a reaction
1.2.1.1 every enzyme has an active site - substrate joins to enzyme
1.2.1.1.1 enzymes only speed up one reaction
1.2.1.1.1.1 substrate has to be correct shape to fit into active site
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 called LOCK AND KEY method
1.3 need the right temperature and pH
1.3.1 specific constant temp to work at OPTIMUM
1.3.1.1 high temp increases rate at first
1.3.1.1.1 too hot = bonds break // enzymes change shape of active site // substrate doesn't fit // enzyme doesn't work // = DENATURED
2 Respiration
2.1 RESPIRATION is series of chemical reactions that RELEASES ENERGY by breaking down FOOD MOLECULES.
2.1.1 movement - muscle contraction
2.1.2 active transport - move substances in or out of cells
2.1.3 synthesis of large molecules
2.1.3.1 glucose joined to make starch and cellulose in plant cells
2.1.3.2 animal & plant cells glucose and nitrogen joined to make amino acids - joined together to make proteins
2.1.4 there are two types
2.1.4.1 Aerobic - WITH OXYGEN
2.1.4.1.1 Releases more energy per glucose molecule
2.1.4.1.1.1 takes place in animal and plant cells and microorganisms
2.1.4.1.1.1.1 Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ Energy Released)
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1 C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O
2.1.4.2 Anaerobic - WITHOUT OXYGEN
2.1.4.2.1 Humans Cells // Vigorous exercise, body can't supply enough oxygen to muscle cells for aerobic respiration
2.1.4.2.1.1 Plant Cells // Soil becomes waterlogged, no oxygen available for roots
2.1.4.2.1.1.1 Bacterial Cells // Under skin through puncture skin, little oxygen.
2.1.4.2.1.1.1.1 Animal & Plant Cells can produce lactic acid // Glucose = Lactic Acid (+Energy Released)
2.1.4.2.2 Plant Cells and Microorganisms produce ehtanol and carbon dioxide - Glucose = Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide (+ Energy Released)
2.1.4.2.3 Fermentation - microorganisms break down sugars
2.1.4.2.3.1 Biogas
2.1.4.2.3.1.1 ferment plant&animal waste - contains carbs
2.1.4.2.3.1.1.1 gas produced mainly methane and carbon dioxide
2.1.4.2.3.2 Bread
2.1.4.2.3.2.1 made using YEAST
2.1.4.2.3.2.1.1 ferment carbs in flour & release CO2 - bread rise
2.1.4.2.3.3 Alcohol
2.1.4.2.3.3.1 YEAST ferment SUGAR to form ALCOHOL
3 photosynthesis
3.1 series of chemical reactions that USES ENERGY from SUNLIGHT to PRODUCE FOOD
3.1.1 happens in green parts of plants & some microorganisms
3.1.1.1 chlorophyll is needed
3.1.1.1.1 green substance absorb sunlight, allows energy to convert CO2 and H20 into glucose (C6H12O6)
3.1.1.1.1.1 Carbon Dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 = 6O2
3.1.2 glucose
3.1.2.1 respiration
3.1.2.2 chemicals for growth
3.1.2.3 stored as starch
4 Rate of Photosynthesis
4.1 amount of light
4.2 amount of CO2
4.3 temperature
5 Investigating Photosyntheis
5.1 transect
5.2 light meter
5.3 quadrat
5.4 identification key
6 Diffusion
6.1 the passive overall movement of particles from a region of their HIGHER CONCENTRATION to a region of their LOWER CONCENTRATION
7 Osmosis
7.1 overall movement of water from a dilute to a MORE CONCENTRATED solution through a partially permeable membrane
8 Active Transport
8.1 overall movement of chemicals across a cell membrane from a region of LOWER CONCENTRATION to a region of HIGHER CONCENTRATION using ENERGY released by respiration
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