Group Success

Mind Map by Hannah96, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Hannah96 over 5 years ago


A Levels PE Mind Map on Group Success, created by Hannah96 on 11/17/2014.

Resource summary

Group Success
1 McGrath 'Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for interaction'.
2 Carron (1982) Suggested that groups have the following unique characteristics:
2.1 2 or more people interacting
2.2 All the individuals have a common or shared goal
2.3 They all share a collective identity
2.4 There are structured forms of communication
2.5 As the process of working together develops, the roles and norms of individuals within the team may alter - commonly known as group dynamics.
3 Stages of Group Formation
3.1 1. Forming
3.1.1 Involves the development of relationships within the group as individuals get to know each other. Often entails a player assessing where they fit within the group based on others strengths and weaknesses. It provides them with opportunity to see whether they actually belong within the group. This can vary enormously depending on the task complexity, the attitude and ability of the players and the time available and levels of expectations.
3.2 2. Storming
3.2.1 Often involves some form of conflict as individuals try to establish their position, status, and role within the group structure. It may involve confrontation with the leader until different roles are established.
3.3 3. Norming
3.3.1 Once the structure has been established the group gains stability and starts to become cohesive. Players start to co-operate and work towards their common goal., accepting the agreed norms.
3.4 4. Performing
3.4.1 The final stage involves all the players working together towards their common goal. Each individual accepts their role and supports other group members.
3.5 Factors that may hinder group formation are; differing abilities, motivation, personality, and attitude. Tuckman (1965) suggested that there are 4 key stages that a group must go through.
3.6 There will be times when this process is repeated, this may occur due to an evaluation of the groups performance which leads to changes being introduced. Alternatively new players may join the team bringing different skills and abilities.
4 Cohesion
4.1 The extent to which a group works together to achieve a common goal.
4.1.1 Task Cohesion The interaction of group members and their effectiveness in working together to achieve a common goal.
4.1.2 Social Cohesion The interaction of individuals and how well they relate to each other.
4.2 It has been suggested that cohesion develops as a direct result of success, while others feel cohesion is a requirement. However it is generally assumed that the more cohesive a group, the better the chance of victory.
4.3 Several Antecedents Carron (1982)
4.3.1 Environmental/Situational Factors e.g. the size of the group, the time available, training facilities etc. The larger the size of the group the more interactions and potential co-ordination problems there will be between individuals.
4.3.2 Member Characteristics Including ability, motivation, affiliation to the group, similarities of opinions and status, satisfaction and other team members.
4.3.3 Leadership Style The involvement of the individuals in decision-making and expectations of the group.
4.3.4 Team Elements e.g. the desire of the whole team for success and the nature of shared experiences either victorious or in defeat. Generally the more success experienced the higher the cohesiveness.
4.3.5 Nature of the Sport Interactive sports such as basketball and hockey rely heavily on cohesion, whereas in co-active sports (such as athletics) cohesion is not so important.
4.3.6 Stability of the Group The longer the group is together with minimal changes the greater the chance of cohesion.
4.3.7 External Threats Those who threaten the group may actually help eliminate internal sub-groups and force the team to work together.
4.4 Each type of cohesion is great for the effectiveness of a team, however its generally agreed that task cohesion is vital for success and has a greater importance compared to Social cohesion. Social cohesion devleops as task cohesion improves, but it can undermine the effectiveness of a group, cliques could form leading to co-operation problems and conflict.
5 Strategies to Develop Effective Group Cohesion
5.1 Practice and Training Drills
5.2 Explanation of roles and Expectations iwthin the group
5.3 Setting specific targets, individual and group
5.4 Giving individual players responsibility
5.5 Develop social cohesion away from training/competitive situations
5.6 Creat group identity e.g. kit etc
5.7 Encourage peer support
5.8 Create an open environment for discussion
5.9 Avoid social cliques
5.10 Minimise difference in status between players
5.11 Attempt to maintain stability & avoid unnecessary changes
5.12 Identify social loafers
6 Steiner's Model of Group Productivity
6.1 Suggested that group productivity could be measured using the following equations:
6.1.1 Actual Productivity = Potential Productivity - Losses Due to Faulty Processes
6.2 Actual Productivity
6.2.1 The performance of a group at a given time
6.3 Potential Productivity
6.3.1 Quality and Quantity of of the groups resources relevant to the task. It is dependant upon skill level, Ability of opponents, task difficulty and expected outcome.
6.4 Faulty Processes
6.4.1 Factors which interfere with group reaching full potential
6.4.2 Co-ordination Losses: caused by factors such as a lack of teamwork, poor execution of tactics, ineffective communication, or misunderstanding of role/position.
6.4.3 Motivational Losses: losing concentration, under or over arousal, loss of motivation due to not being valued, low self-confidence, relience on other players or avoidance behaviour if the task is percieved as too difficult.
7 Ringlemann Effect
7.1 The performance of an individual may decrease as the group size increases.
7.2 His research was carried out over 100 years ago and was based on the amount of force exerted during a tug of war pull. The force exerted by a team of 8 was not eight times that of a solo pull. This is caused by a mixture of factors including a lack of co-ordination, and a loss of motivation caused by being with a group.
8 Social Loafing
8.1 Individual attempts to 'hide' when placed in a group situation and doesn't perform to their potential. They often 'coast' through the game. The performer may feel that their contribution to the team isn't being recognised or valued. They may simply be relying on others to cover their lack of effort. However this can be detrimental to the teams performance.
8.2 Strategies to Minimise the Effects of Social Loafing
8.2.1 Giving feedback, evaluating performance, praise, etc.
8.2.2 Use video analysis
8.2.3 introduce situations where it is difficult for social loafing to occur
8.2.4 Set challenging but realistic targets
8.2.5 Develop social cohesion and peer support
8.2.6 Giving players specific responsibilities
8.2.7 Vary practise to maintain motivation
8.2.8 Developing higher levels of fitness to avoid hiding or taking a break
8.2.9 Highlighting the individuals role within the team and their responsibility to other players

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