Chemistry

Holly Bamford
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Chemistry mind map in progress-2/6 done

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Holly Bamford
Created by Holly Bamford over 4 years ago
GCSE Chemistry C2 topic notes
imogen.shiels
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GCSE Core Chemistry Yr 9
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I M Wilson
Enzymes and Respiration
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Chemistry Module C2: Material Choices
James McConnell
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C1, C2, C3 keywords
Jessica Phillips
Chemistry
1 Structure and Bonding
1.1 Ionic Bonding
1.1.1 Between + &- ions
1.1.2 Atoms turn into Ions by gaining or losing an electron
1.1.3 E.g Mg^2+ 0^2-
1.1.4 High melting points
1.1.5 Don't conduct electricity when solid
1.1.5.1 Only conduct when molten or in soluion
1.2 Covalent Bonding
1.2.1 Between two non-metals
1.2.2 Shared pair of electrons
1.2.3 Dot cross diagrams
1.2.4 Strong Intermolecular forces
1.2.4.1 Low Boiling point
1.2.4.2 High Melting point
1.2.5 The number of covalent binds = 8 - group number
1.2.6 Double and triple bonds
1.2.6.1 Double is 2 pairs of shared electrons
1.2.6.2 Triple is 3 pairs of shared electrons
1.3 Structure properties and uses
1.3.1 Simple Molecules
1.3.1.1 Properties
1.3.1.1.1 Low melting and boiling points
1.3.1.1.1.1 Weak intermolecular fores
1.3.1.2 Non-conductive
1.3.1.3 Few atoms joined together
1.3.2 Giant Covalent structures
1.3.2.1 Macromolecules E.g
1.3.2.1.1 Diamond

Annotations:

  • Very hard high melting point each carbon atom is joined to four others.
1.3.2.1.2 Graphite

Annotations:

  • Is a form of carbon. It forms layers. Each layer is joined by only three other carbon atoms. Graphite is soft used as a lubricant conducts electricity
1.3.2.1.3 Silica

Annotations:

  • Similar to diamond but silicon and oxygen atoms instead of carbon
1.3.3 Polymers
1.3.3.1 LDPE
1.3.3.1.1 Many branches
1.3.3.1.2 Weak
1.3.3.1.3 85C maximum useable temperature
1.3.3.2 HDPE
1.3.3.2.1 Few branches
1.3.3.2.2 Strong
1.3.3.2.3 120C maximum useable temp.
1.3.3.3 Thermosoftening polymers
1.3.3.3.1 No cross links
1.3.3.3.2 can be reshaped when heated
1.3.3.4 Thermosetting polymers
1.3.3.4.1 Once heated cannot be reshaped
1.3.3.4.2 Polymer chains joined with cross links
2 Acids and Bases
2.1 Acids
2.1.1 Uses
2.1.1.1 To remove rust from acids
2.1.1.2 As an electrolyte
2.1.2 Found in:
2.1.2.1 Stomach (hydrochloric acid)
2.1.2.2 Lemons (citric acid)
2.1.2.3 Vinegar (acetic acid)
2.1.3 All contain hydrogen ions (H+)
2.2 Bases and alkalis
2.2.1 All alkalis are bases but bases aren't always alkali

Annotations:

  • Fried egg diagram
2.2.2 All metal oxides and hydroxides are bases
2.2.2.1 Hydroxides are often alkalis
2.2.2.1.1 NaOH & KOH
2.3 pH scale
2.3.1 Acid Neutral Alkali Red Green Blue
2.3.2 Universal Indicator
2.4 State symbols and spectator ions

Annotations:

  • HCl + NaOH -> H2O +NaCLHCl(aq) +NaOH(nq) -> H2O(l) + NaCl (aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) +Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) -> H20(l) +Na(aq) + Cl (aq)
2.4.1 Soluble
2.4.1.1 Most carbonates and hydroxides
2.4.1.2 lead sulphate & barium sulphate
2.4.1.3 lead & silver chlorides bromides & iodides
2.4.2 Insoluble
2.4.2.1 sodium potassium & ammonium carbonates and hydroxides
2.4.2.2 all nitrates
2.4.2.3 Most sulphates
2.4.2.4 most chlorides bromides and iodides
3 Energy Changes
3.1 Exothermic
3.1.1 Transfer energy to the surrondings
3.1.1.1 Normally heat energy
3.1.1.1.1 Causes surroundings to get hotter
3.1.2 E.g.
3.1.2.1 Combustion
3.1.2.2 Oxidisation reactions
3.1.2.3 Neutralisation
3.2 Endothermic
3.2.1 Taking energy from the surrondings
3.2.2 E.g
3.2.2.1 reaction between ethanoic acid and sodium carbonate
3.2.2.2 Electrolysis
3.2.2.3 Thermal decomposition
3.3 Reversible reactions
3.3.1 A reversible reaction is shown by a Equilibrium symbol

Annotations:

  • ⇌ 
4 Electrolysis
4.1 Melt
4.1.1 + pure sample -expensive -unsafe
4.2 Dissolve
4.2.1 + cheaper + safer - h20 could interfer