Mind Map by Hannah96, updated more than 1 year ago


A Levels PE Mind Map on Leadership, created by Hannah96 on 11/20/2014.

Resource summary

1 Barrow (1977) Leadership is the behavioural process of influencing individuals and groups towards set goals. Factors that contribute to affective leadership are:
1.1 Good communication skills
1.2 Empathy with individuals
1.3 Approachable
1.4 Highly knowledgeable
1.5 Vision
1.6 Confident
1.7 Organised
1.8 Determined
1.9 Inspirational
2 Great Man Theory
2.1 Nature: Leaders inherit specific personality traits which enable them to be effective. They possess intelligence, self-confidence, assertion, good looks and a dominating personality.
2.2 A good leader would be good irrespective of the situation. There is no conclusive evidence to support this theory.
3 Interactionist Approach
3.1 Combines both theories. It takes into account the need for differing behaviour patterns or leadership styles depending on the situation, the characteristics of the group and the required outcome.
4.1 Suggests all behaviour patterns are learnt due to environmental factors. The performer observes others and then imitates what they see when a similar situation occurs. Its a vicarious experience however a criticism of this is that there is no allowance for traits, and natural personality characteristics.
5 Leadership Styles
5.1 Authoritarian/Autocratic
5.1.1 Dictates to the group what actions should be taken with very little input from the members. It is task-orientated, with the primary focus being to complete the goal asap. The group works hard when this leader is present, but can become aggressive when left alone. Most Effective when... The situation involves team sports/ large groups. Decisions need to be made quickly. Limited time to complete the task. Clear and specific goals. The task is complex or dangerous.
5.2 Laissez-Faire Leader
5.2.1 Tends to leave the group to their own devices, allowing them to make their own decisions and offering them little help with the decision making process. Generally adapts a passive role and as a result the task is less likely to be completed. If the group is left alone they usually become aggressive towards one another and give up easily.
5.3 Democratic
5.3.1 Encourages the group to discuss ideas and becomes involved in the decision making process. However they will make the final decision. The style is generally more informal, and relaxed within the group. When left alone the group tends to continue to work and co-operate to complete the set task. Most Effective when... Situation involves individual sports. Performers are more experienced. Friendly relationships within the group. Limited facilities are available. Decisions don't have to be made quickly.
6 Preferred Leadership Styles
6.1 At different times leaders should alter their leadership style.
6.1.1 Task-Orientated/ Autocratic Larger groups/teams. Older players. Male Performers. Novices or weaker players.
6.1.2 Relationship-Orientated/ Democratic Smaller groups/Individuals. Younger players. Female performers. Experiences or highly skilled players.
7 Selecting Leaders
7.1 Prescribed Leader
7.1.1 This is when an individual is appointed to lead the group by a higher authority from an external group.
7.2 Emergent Leader
7.2.1 This is when an individual becomes a leader based on support from within the team. They are often nominated and elected based on ability, interpersonal skills and experience.
8 Fiedler's Contingency Model
8.1 Suggested that leadership is dependant on a combination of personality traits and the situation.
8.2 Task-centred/Task-Orientated
8.2.1 Concentrate on efficiency, setting and completing goals as quickly as possible. They would adopt an autocratic approach. This approach would be desirable when the situation is potentially dangerous, time is limited, large groups, and quick decisions are required.
8.3 Relationship centred/person-orientated
8.3.1 Concentrate on developing interpersonal relationships within the group. They adopt a democratic approach. This approach would be useful when time isn't crucial, consultation is required, personal support may help develop interpersonal relationships within the team.
8.4 the effectiveness of each depends on the favourableness of the situation which is dependant on: the relationship between the leader and the group, the leaders position of power and authority, as well as the task structure. He proposed that: task orientated style would be effective in very favourable or unfavourable conditions, person orientated style would be better employed in moderately favourable conditions.
9 Chelladurai's Multi-Dimensional Model
9.1 Suggests that before a leadership style can be chosen, 3 characteristics must be considered.
9.2 Leader Characteristics
9.2.1 Personality, Experience, skill level and preferred leadership style.
9.3 Situational Factors
9.3.1 Task difficulty, nature of opposition, group size, nature of activity and time available.
9.4 Group Members Characteristics
9.4.1 Ability, motivation, age, gender, personality.
9.5 3 Types of Leader Behaviour
9.5.1 Required Behaviour Depending on the situation/task e.g. the coach may have to give instructions quickly during a timeout as time is limited.
9.5.2 Actual Behaviour Leaders actions in a situation e.g. coach issues direction in an effective, clear manner. This is often determined by the experience of the coach.
9.5.3 Preferred Behaviour What the group want depending on their skill and goals. e.g. team which is goal orientated will want clear instructions but a team which merely plays for recreational reasons will want a rest, not to be given detailed tactical ploys.
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