3.1 1. All human beings have potentials
that have not een fully developed.
3.1.1 2. Normal motor development proceeds in a
cervicocaudal and proximodistal direction.
22.214.171.124 3. Early motor behavior dominated by reflex activity. Mature motor
behavior is supported or reinforced by postural reflexes.
126.96.36.199.1 4. Early motor behavior is characterized by spontaneous movement,
which oscillates between extreme flexion and extension.
188.8.131.52.1.1 5. Developing motor behavior is expressed in an orderly
sequence of total patterns of movement and posture.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 6. The growth of motor behavior has cyclic trends.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 7. Normal motor development has an orderly sequence but
lacks a step-by-step quality. Overlapping occurs.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 8. Locomotion depends on reciprocal contraction of flexors & extensors and the
maintenance of posture requires continual adjustment for nuances of imbalance.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1 9. Improvement in motor ability is dependent upon motor learning.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1.1 10. Frequency of stimulation & repetitive activity are used to promote and
retain motor learning and to develop strength and endurance.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 11. Goal-directed activities coupled c/ techniques of facilitation - used to
hasten learning of total patterns of walking & self-care activities.
4.1 Unilateral Patterns
4.1.1 UE D1 FLEXION: hand -to-mouth motion in feeding, combing
hair on L side c/ R hand, rolling from supine to prone.
184.108.40.206 UE D1 EXTENSION: pushing car door open from inside,
tennis backhand, rolling from prone to supine.
220.127.116.11.1 UE D2: FLEXION: combing hair on R side c/ R hand, back
stroke in swimming, lifting racquet in tennis serve.
18.104.22.168.1.1 UE D2 EXTENSION: pitching a baseball, buttoning pants
on L side c/ R hand, hitting ball on tennis serve.
4.1.2 LE D1 FLEXION: kicking a soccer ball, rolling from
supine to prone, putting shoe on c/ legs crossed.
22.214.171.124 LE D1 EXTENSION: putting leg into pants,
rolling from prone to supine.
126.96.36.199.1 LE D2: FLEXION: karate kick, drawing heel
up during breast stroke.
188.8.131.52.1.1 LE D 2 EXTENSION: push-off in gait, the kick during
breast stroke, long sitting c/ legs crossed.
4.2 BILATERAL PATTERNS
4.2.1 SYMMETRICAL PATTERNS:
paired extremities perform similar
movements. D1 extension, both
hands pushing off a chair.
184.108.40.206 ASYMMETRICAL PATTERNS:
paired extremities perform
movements on one side of body,
facilitates trunk rotation.
Chopping and lifting patterns. L
arm D2 flexion & R arm D1
flexion, putting on L earring.
4.2.2 RECIPROCAL PATTERNS:
paired extremities move in
opposite directions at the
same time. D1 extension in
one extremity and D2 flexion
in the other. Arm swing
4.2.3 IPSILATERAL PATTERNS:
extremities on the same side
moving in same direction.
4.2.4 CONTRALATERAL PATTERNS:
extremities of opposite sides moving in
the same direction at the same time.
4.2.5 DIAGONAL RECIPROCAL PATTERN:
contralateral extremities moving in same direction
at the same time while opposite contralateral
extremities move in opposite direction.
4.3 ADVANTAGES of using diagonal patterns:
Crosses midline, helps to integrate both
sides of body. These patterns use groups of
muscles, typical of most functional activities.
5 PNF Procedures
5.1 Therapists hands should be placed directly on pt's. skin.
5.1.1 STRETCH can be used to initiate voluntary movement and increase speed and strength.
220.127.116.11 TRACTION facilitates the joint receptors by creating sseparation on jt surfaces.
18.104.22.168.1 APPROXIMATION facilitates joint receptors by creating compression on jt surfaces.