Rules of Tajweed

Naeema Abbas
Mind Map by Naeema Abbas, updated more than 1 year ago
Naeema Abbas
Created by Naeema Abbas about 5 years ago


Revision tool for rules of Tajweed covered in lessons so far which will be tested in mid-year December exams 2014.

Resource summary

Rules of Tajweed
1 Nun & Meem Mushaddad (Ghunna)
1.1 To block the sound from the nasal passage.
1.1.1 Nun: Feel a buzzing sound in the nose when recited. e.g اَنَّ
1.1.2 Meem: Feel a buzzing in the lips when recited e.g. اَمَّ
2 Qalqala
2.1 When there is a saakin on one of the 5 letters of qalqala there will be an echoing/boucing sound.
2.1.1 Qalqala Kubra: Stronger qalqala when a stop is made. Example: Surah Ikhlaas, Ayah 3: "Yoolad".
2.1.2 Qalqala Sughra: Slightly weaker qalqala when no stop is made. Example: Surah Ikhlaas, Ayah 3: "Lam yalid..."
2.1.3 Letters are: Kaaf (big), Taa, Baa, Jeem and Daal (Katbujad) ق ط ب ج د
3 Rules of Nun Saakin and Tanween
3.1 Idhgaam (means merging or assimilating). There are 6 letters (Yarmaloon). If these are found after Nun saakin/tanween the rule applies.
3.1.1 Laam and Raa (ل ر ) will be read without ghunna.
3.1.2 Yaa, Meem, Waw and Nun (Yamnoo) ى م و ن will be read with ghunna.
3.1.3 Idhgaam occurs at the end of one word and beginning of second, therefore nun saakin/tanween have to be at the end of the first word. Yarmaloon letters have to be at the start of the second word. Idhgaam rule will not apply in the middle of the word.
3.2 Izhaar: A clear, sharp pronounciation with no nasalisation.
3.2.1 Applies to the 6 throat letters Bottom of the throat: Hamza,Haa (small) Middle of the throat: Ain,Haa (big) Top of the throat: Ghain, Khaa
3.3 Iqlaab means changing or turning.
3.3.1 Applies to letters baa and hamza.
3.3.2 Nun saakin/tanween followed by letters of Iqlaab will change into meem and will be read with ghunna. The small meem symbol on the last daal in Surah Masad indicates Iqlaab. Another example Surah Humaza, Ayah 4: "Layumbazanna".
3.4 Ikhfaa means hiding or covering.
3.4.1 Nasal sound of nun is hidden or covered when 15 letters of ikhfaa come after nun saakin/tanween. ت,ث,ج,د,ذ,ز,س,ش,ص,ض,ط,ظ,ف,ق,ك
4 Rules of Meem Saakin
4.1 Idhgaam Shafwi
4.1.1 When meem saakin is followed by meem mushaddad, the sound of one meem will press into the other and merge. Example: Surah Quraish, final ayah.
4.2 Ikhfaa Shafwi
4.2.1 When meem saakin is followed by a baa, the meem sound is hidden and pronounced with a light nasal sound. Example: Surah Fil, fourth ayah.
4.3 Izhaar Shafwi
4.3.1 The meem sound is clearly read as the sound of meem itself, except when followed by meem or baa. Example: Surah Fil, first ayah.
5 Rules of Raa
5.1 Rules of Heavy Raa. Tafkheem means heavy.
5.1.1 When raa is pronounced heavy the tongue will hit the roof of the mouth and the sound will be rolled.
5.1.2 1. Raa has a fatha.
5.1.3 2. Raa is saakin and the letter before it has fatha.
5.1.4 3.Raa is saakin, letter before it is saakin and letter before that has a fatha.
5.1.5 4.Raa has a dammah.
5.1.6 5.Raa is saakin and letter before it has a dammah.
5.1.7 6.Raa is saakin, letter before it is saakin and letter before it has a dammah.
5.1.8 7.A saakin alif before a saakin raa is given a helping kasra in order to pronounce next letter.
5.1.9 8.When the letter before raa is a kasra and letter after it is one of the letters fof Isti'la with a fatha or dammah. Isti'la means elevation. This is to raise the tongue towards the roof of the mouth. Letters are: khaa, saad, daad, ghain, taa, kaaf (big), zaa (khas-dagat-kiz)
5.2 Rules of Light Raa
5.2.1 When raa is pronounced light it touches the roof of the mouth and there is no rolling.
5.2.2 1. Raa has a kasra.
5.2.3 2 (a). Raa is a saakin and letter before it is kasra and leter after it has a fatha or dammah and is not one of the letters of isti'la)
5.2.4 2 (b). Raa is a saakin, letter before is kasra and letter after IS a letter of isti'la with a kasra.
5.2.5 3. Raa is a saakin, letter before it is saakin and letter before that is kasra.
5.2.6 4. Raa is saakin, yaa before it is saak and letter before it can have any of the harakaat and a stop will be made on the raa.
5.3 Rules of pronouncing Raa Heavy or Light (Optional)
5.3.1 1. Raa is saakin, before raa is letter with kasra and after raa is letter of isti'la with kasra.
5.3.2 2. Raa is saakin, before it is a letter of isti'la which is saakin and letter before that has a kasra.
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