1.1.1 Carbohydrates - slowly release energy and
glucose ( bread , paste , potatoes ) produces
sugars when digested.
1.1.2 Fats ( lipids ) - quick rushes of
energy ( chocolate, sweets, chips )
produces fatty acids and glycerol
1.1.3 Vitamins - vitamins A , D , E and K are all fat
soluble vitamins( fruits , citrus fruits ,
vegetables ) .
18.104.22.168 Protiens - used for growth and repair , also
to build muscles( meat , fish , beans ) ,
produces amino acids when digested.
22.214.171.124 Fibres - to help with digestion ( rice , potatoes , breakfast cereals ).
1.1.4 Minerals - iron/calcium ( fruits
, water , vegetables).
1.1.5 Water - removes body
1.2 Key words
1.2.1 Malnourished - not having
enough to eat or having to
much to eat.
1.2.2 Metabolic rate - refers to the
rate of which the chemical
reactions take place in cells.
1.2.3 Deficiency - when you have to
little of something.
1.2.4 Obesity - when a person is severely over weight.
2 Deficiency Diseases
2.1 Scurvy - is a condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of
vitamin C ( ascorbic acid ) in the diet . vitiman C plays a major
part in the forming of your collagen , and a major cmponent
of connective tissue. Symptoms of scurvy are fatigue , loss of
appetite , nausea/diarrheoa and the loss of hair follicles
2.2 Rickets - is a defective mineralization of bones before
epiphyseal ( the rounded end of a long bone) closure of
immature mammels due to deficiency or impaired metabolism
of vitamin D, phosphores ( non-metalic chemical element ) or
calcium leading to potential fractures and/or
deformities.rickets occurs in adults but is mainly found in
2.3 Deficiency diseases can be passed on
to offspring if they inherit the
3.1 Key words
3.1.1 Infectious disease - disease which can be passed from one individual to another.
3.1.2 Microorganism - beacteria , viruses and other
organisms that can only be seen using a microscope.
126.96.36.199 White Blood Cells - help to defend
your body against pathogens by
ingesting them, making
anti-bodies and anti-toxins.
3.1.3 Pathogen - Microorganism which causes disease.
3.1.4 Bacteria -
that can cause
3.1.5 Viruses - microorganisms that takes over cells and reproduce
rapidly , causing disease.
3.2.1 Pathogens make you ill by nesting inside your body
and reproducing , this is why you're ill . they attack
your body from the inside producing toxins that
can be harmful to your body, they reproduce by
damaging and destroying your cells.
188.8.131.52 Pathogens can enter your body
through cuts , scratches ,
needles e.g HIV/AIDS or heatitis.
184.108.40.206 Your skin acts as a barrier . it prevents bacteria and
viruses from reching the tissues beneath that can be
220.127.116.11 If you damage or cut your skin , you bleed. your
blood forms a clot, which dries into a scab.
stopping pathogens getting into into the wound.
3.2.2 when you cough , sneeze or talk you expel tiny
droblets full of pathogens from your breathing
system. other people breath in the droplets along
with the pathogens that they contain, so they pick up
the infection e.g flu , tuberculosis , or the common
18.104.22.168 Eating raw or uncooked food, or drinking water
containing sewage can spread disease e.g
diarroea or salmonella. You get these by taking
large amounts of microorganisms straight to
22.214.171.124.1 Your lungs produce a sticky substance ( mucus ) this helps
the pathogens stick to it and then you swallow it and your
stomach acid ( hydrochloric acid ) kills the microorganisms.
3.2.3 Some diseases are spread by direct contact of the
skin e.g impetigo and some sexually transmitted
diseases like genital herpes.
4 The Nervous System
4.1 key words
4.1.1 Axon - long thin projection
carrying impulses all around the
126.96.36.199 Dendrites - branched fibres , that
pick up information ariving from
receptors or other nuerons.
4.1.2 Myelin sheath - isulates the axon
and makes transmissions faster.
188.8.131.52 Cell Body - the cell body
contains the necleus and
cytoplasm, like most animal
4.2.1 The synapse - nervous impulses can be transmitted
from one nueron to another. These happen at junctions
called synapses. Nuerons are not in contact with each
184.108.40.206 There is a gap between the
sensory and relay nuerons called
a synaptic cleft.
220.127.116.11 when a nerve impulse arrives at the end
of a sensory nuerone, it triggers the
movment of nuerotransmitter molrcules
towards the membrane.
18.104.22.168.1 These diffuse . they bind with receptors on relay nurone
triggering another impulse. meanwhile , the
nuerotransmitters are absorbed back into the sensory
nuerone to be reused.