Forms of Opposition in Fascist Italy

rosie jones
Mind Map by rosie jones, updated more than 1 year ago
rosie jones
Created by rosie jones almost 3 years ago
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A level History Mind Map on Forms of Opposition in Fascist Italy, created by rosie jones on 03/13/2019.

Resource summary

Forms of Opposition in Fascist Italy
  1. Opposition Groups
    1. Anti-Fascist concentration: Established 1927 in Paris. Mainly socialists + some liberals. Tried to work on divisions with difficulty. Concentrated on telling europeans how bad Fascism was. Disbanded 1934
      1. Many politicians left Italy after 1924. Published horrors of Fascism abroad.300,000 anti Fascists fighting in Spanish Civil War
        1. Communist Party leaders arrested 1926. Around 2,800 members, had success in North infiltrating factories to organize strikes. Was helped by soviet money. Non-collaboration limited impact. 1943 onwards played major role in resistance movement.
          1. Criticism from Catholics despite Concordat as increasing pressure on catholic action. Critical of anti semitic decrees.
            1. Fascism remained diverse. Always criticism from radicals about concordat. 1943 Grand Council voted to depose Mussolini
              1. King generally supportive but secretly critical of actions. 1943 dismissed Mussolini
                1. Justice & Liberty founded 1929 in Paris by Rosselli brothers. Wanted to stir up anti fascism. After their murder declined but revived 1943 during liberation struggle
                  1. Periodic protests, bombing, murders of policemen by italo-german & slav minorities.
                  2. Strikes and Demonstrations
                    1. Periodic illegal strikes
                      1. Turin 1943 major stike
                        1. Bologna `1930/31 protests about closing of soup kitchens
                          1. Trieste 1933 lack of food
                          2. Asasination attempts
                            1. Four attempts on Mussolini's life. 1925 (Rome) 1926 (Bologna suspected of being staged).
                              1. 1931 Bombs in Turin and Genoa
                              2. Propaganda
                                1. Underground printing of anti fascist newspapers
                                  1. Secret press had some sucess
                                    1. Distribution of anti fascist leaflets. Bassanesi flew over Milan July 1930, dropped 100,000 leaflets.
                                      1. Anti fascist slogans
                                      2. Armed Uprising.
                                        1. 1943-45 growing resistance movement against German occupation of North
                                          1. Communist guerrillas shot Mussolini 1945
                                          2. Open expressions of criticism + Non conformity
                                            1. Growing public criticism of Fascist violence (Murder of Matteotti 1923) violence repressed after 1925
                                              1. Aventine Sucession 1924-25
                                                1. Some critical journals survived till 1927
                                                  1. Hard to assess extent of non conformity
                                                    1. Refusal to make Fascist salute or wear Fascist uniform + anti Fascist jokes + insults
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