Liberal Italy &
Rise of Fascism
1 Most Italians content with
neutrality. Salandra (pm)
unsure. Promised Italian
Irredenta by the Entente.
2 1915 war hailed by nationalists
but southern peasants doing
most of fighting. Caporetto
700,000 retreated 300,000
taken prisoner. Vittorio Veneto
success against Austria.
Armistice signed 3rd Nov 1918
3 600,000 men killed. Inflation
and fall of wages increased
hardship. Socialist threat
increased 1917 Russian
Revolution. 1919 elections
Socialists won 1/3 votes. Became
largest party in Parliament
4 Mutilated Victory = Treaty of St
Germain Italy refused Fiume (not
promised in Treaty of London).
Seizure of Fiume, D'Annuzio led
200 men into city. No action by
govt for a year.
5 March 1919 1st
meeting of Fasci di
6 PM Nitti too
reliant on PPI
7 Middle classes began to fight back
against socialism. Started to support
Mussolini as answer to socialist threat.
November 1920 Fascist violence began
continued into 1921. 200 dead 800
wounded. 800 trade unions destroyed.
Mussolini sought to reassert power over
8 May 1921 Cooperation between
Liberals + Fascists. Mussolini now a
deputy. Giolitti unable to maintain
stability as Liberals divided. 3
Govts May 1921. October 1922
unable to cope with industrial
9 Fascist Party formed Oct 1921.
Mussolini tries to win over
Catholics + Conservatives.
Drops anti-clericalism etc.
Fascists presented as
defenders of law and order
10 March on Rome October 1922
began to organise a coup for
27th. Mussolini asked to be
PM by King 29th Oct. Turned
into victory march.