AQA GCSE Biology B1.4 Interdependence & Adaptation

Katie Nunn
Mind Map by Katie Nunn, updated more than 1 year ago
Katie Nunn
Created by Katie Nunn over 6 years ago
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GCSE Biology Mind Map on AQA GCSE Biology B1.4 Interdependence & Adaptation, created by Katie Nunn on 11/30/2014.

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AQA GCSE Biology B1.4 Interdependence & Adaptation
  1. Adaptations
    1. In order to survive and reproduce, organisms require materials from their surroundings and from the other organisms living there.
      1. Plants often compete with each other for light and space, and for water and nutrients from the soil
        1. Animals compete with each other mates, food and territory
          1. Organisms and microorganisms have features (adaptations) which enabled them to survive in the conditions in which they normally live.
            1. Some organisms live in environments which are very extreme. They are called extremophiles and they may be tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures.
              1. They are adapted to live in conditions where enzymes won't usually work because they would denature.
          2. Animal adaptations
            1. Animals may be adapted for survival in dry and artic conditions by means of:
              1. Changes to surface area (bigger animals have a smaller surface area compared to their volume which means that they can conserve energy more easily but it is also more difficult to cool down)
                1. Thickness of insulating coat (in cold climates animals have thick fur and fat under the skin (blubber) to keep them warm)
                  1. Amount of body fat
                    1. Camouflage (some animals in the arctic (e.g arctic fox & hare) are white in the winter and brown in summer)
            2. Plant adaptations
              1. Plants can be adapted to survive in dry environments by means of:
                1. Having small or waxy leaves
                  1. water storage tissues
                    1. extensive root systems
                      1. Having a swollen stem to store water
            3. Environmental change
              1. Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms
                1. If the environment changes the organism may not be able to live there any more
                  1. Non-living factors which may change could include: temperature, rainfall, light and oxygen levels
                    1. Living factors which might change include: new predators or diseases, new plants which could provide new food or habitats
                2. Living organisms can be used as indicators of pollution:
                  1. Lichen can be used as air pollution indicators, particularly for sulfur dioxide. The more species of lichen growing, the cleaner the air.
                    1. Invertebrate animals can be used as water pollution indicators (the wider the range of them the cleaner the water) and are also used as indicator of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
                      1. Lichen and invertebrate animals are both examples of indicator species
                  2. Environmental change can also be measured using non-living indicators such as oxygen levels, temperature and rainfall.
                    1. This is done using equipment such as rain gauges, thermometers, PH and oxygen sensors and data loggers
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