Factors affecting intensity of food production and supply

Hannah Lim
Mind Map by Hannah Lim, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Lim
Created by Hannah Lim about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Factors affecting intensity of food production and supply, created by Hannah Lim on 12/01/2014.

Resource summary

Factors affecting intensity of food production and supply
1 PHYISICAL
1.1 CLIMATE: average condition of the atmosphere of a specific plave over a long period of time, usually over 30 years.
1.1.1 Temperature: affects rate of photosynthesis and seed germination. Fall below 5 degrees regularly makes it difficult for crops to grow.
1.1.1.1 Temp required for growth varies: pea, broccolli, strawberry need cooler climates. Soya bean, tomatoes need warmer
1.1.2 Rainfall: varies for different plants
1.1.2.1 Corn need more water than soy bean
1.1.3 High Temp and rainfall is more conducive. Tropics allow long growing season(2 or 3 harvest per year) daily temp range 22-32degrees. Average rainfall>2000mm.
1.1.4 USA, CANADA, NETHERLANDS: Due to short growing season, greenhouses used because can control rainfall, temperature and irrigation so can use throughout the year.
1.1.5 Cattle and poultry when stressed by climate more likely to suffer from infections and produce less eggs and milk and die. If wet and moist conditions suffer from fungal and parasitic diseases.
1.2 SOIL AND DRAINAGE
1.2.1 SOIL: top layer of earth surface, made up of rocks, mineral particles and organic matter.
1.2.2 SOIL FERTILITY: Depends on availability of air, water and nutrients from minerals in soil. Fertile soil rich in nutrients needed for plant growth(nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). Found at floodplains, along river, deltas, near volcanoes.
1.2.2.1 MEKONG DELTA, VIETNAM: highly fertile soils + flat terrain + large water supply=high production of rice
1.2.3 Soil drainage: ability of soil to retain or drain of water. Improper soil drainage hinder growth of crops
1.2.3.1 Oats require more sandy soils that are well-drained. Soils with more clay and retain large amounts of water best for rice.
1.3 RELIEF: slope and altitude of a land surface
1.3.1 Terracing: The cutting of steps into a hillside to create flat land for cultivation.
1.3.1.1 Steep: rain more likely to remove top soil(rich in nutrients) as it becomes less stable when saturated with water and gets washed down the slope. Suitable for grapes, tea, coffee(grow in well-drained soil)
1.3.1.1.1 Altitude: >altitude,<temperature. Suitable for cool climate crops(strawberry)
1.3.1.1.1.1 Longji Rice Terrace(China), Sapa(Vietnam), Banaue Rice Terraces(Phillippines)
2 SOCIAL
2.1 LAND TENURE: system agriculture land is allocated and supplied.
2.1.1 LDC: Rent land from landowners. Lack of security, unsure whether can keep the land=lack incentive to make improvements and care for land(max. short-term profit)=land degredation
2.2 LAND FRAGMENTATION: division of land into many smaller plots over successive generations of farmers.
2.2.1 Land becomes very small=lower crop yield, unprofitable to use machines
2.2.1.1 TIVLAND NIGERIA: Land fragmentation=smallholder farmers operate small scattered farms=insufficient crop produced despite large amounts of arable land.
3 ECONOMIC
3.1 PURPOSE
3.1.1 SUBSISTENCE
3.1.1.1 Purpose: Feed farmer and family. Land: Small (1-3h). Labour: Family. Capital: Simple farming tools, seeds from previous harvest. Crop Yield: Low.
3.1.1.1.1 Sub-saharan Africa, grow corn and cassava
3.1.2 COMMERCIAL
3.1.2.1 Purpose: cash crops(large scale production for sale). Land: Large(30-thousands). Labour: Hired. Capital: Machinery. Crop yield: High.
3.1.2.1.1 Europe, N.Am, S.Am, Aust, Asia, livestock, corn, coffee, tea, sugar cane, banana
3.1.3 DEMAND
3.1.3.1 CHINA: >corn needed for livestock due to increasing demand for meat by larger, wealthier pop. China >import from USA etc.=global production of meat increase, USA increase production of corn for export to China
3.1.4 TRADE: Import and export of goods and services
3.1.4.1 FREE TRADE: Form of international trade where trade barriers are removed(e.g. not imposing tax on imports).
3.1.4.1.1 +ve: Allow food products more competitively priced.
3.1.4.1.2 -ve: Benefit wealthier countries more. LDCs more dependant on imported food=local food industry develop less due to competition.
3.1.4.1.3 -ve: Trade expansion=large companies producing >export crops instead staple food develop more affecting food production because >land for exports(soya bean, coffee) than staples
3.1.4.1.3.1 SUDAN: land increasingly farmed for animal feed replacing staple grain crops(sorghum)
3.2 AGRIBUSINESS: Large farming companies involved imost industries along food supply chain(farming, processing, retailing)
3.2.1 Scientific, business principles more importance, invest research developments of food crops
3.2.2 Withstand changes in environment(damage to crops due to pests, flooding) vs farmers. >financial capacity to absorb losses=continue farming. + more investments in food production
4 POLITICAL
4.1 GOVERNMENT POLICY: Plan of action by govt to change a specific situation
4.1.1 FOOD SECURITY: all people able to obtain sufficient quantities of safe, nutritious food to maintain healthy and active lifestyle
4.1.1.1 AGRICULTURAL POLICY: Pertaining to domestic and agriculture. Decide how limited resources(land, $, etc.) influence intensity of food production. Eg. choose channel resources into educating farmers on more efficient ways of farming.
4.1.1.2 FOOD POLiCY: Decision made by govt affect how food produced, processed, distributed, purchased and packaged.
4.1.1.2.1 STOCKPILING; setting aside and storage of food ensure food security during emergency.(food shortage, price increase of food items). Ensure stable supply, readily available
4.1.1.2.2 Diversify food source by importing from diff. sources= > countries buffer food shortage and price fluctuation
4.1.1.2.2.1 SG: Large portion of veg from China, USA, etc. Encourage local companies place contracts directly with farmers for agreed amount of price of food products. NTUC Fairprice Co-operative Ltd. purchase veg through contracts with Indonesian farmers.
4.2 ASEAN
4.2.1 OCT 2011: The ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rise Reserve(APTERR) Agreement commitment for big rice producers to supply rice for reserve for disasters. China 300,000 tonnes, Thailand 15,000, Singapore US$107,500.
4.2.2 2012: Thailand programme to intensify rice production in SEA. Work with Cambodia increase efficiency in rice production.
4.3 COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY(CAP) OF THE EU
4.3.1 > agricultural productivity. stable affordable supply of food, sustainable farming prac.
4.3.1.1 Help 14mil farmers increase productivity: assist restructuring farms > prod., subsidies for produce, import taxes on food products from outside region
4.3.2 2012: wheat yields increased in original six member states from 3 tonnes per hectare 62' to 7 tonnes in 08'
5 TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES
5.1 GREEN REVOLUTION: rapid increase in productivity of agriculture through science and tech
5.1.1 High-yielding varieties(HYV): improved strains of crops increased growth rate
5.1.1.1 Cross-breeding crops favourable characteristics(>resistance, grow in shorter growth season= >harvest)
5.1.1.1.1 Wonder Rice growing season of 100 days vs 120 days. IR36 maturation period 105 vs 130(previous HYV) vs 150(normal rice)
5.1.1.1.2 IR8 twice as much grain. 1990 INDIA: 70% rice and wheat were HYVs. 1970 to 2010, rice production x2. wheat x4
5.1.2 FERTILISERS: Substances added to soil provide nutrients for healthy plant growth
5.1.2.1 Nutrients depleted gradually no chance to fallow, fertiliser help increase crop yield
5.1.3 PESTICIDE: Chemical substances used to kill insects small animals that destroy crops
5.1.3.1 High level pest damage when single crop cover wide area, crop yield
5.1.3.1.1 Malathion in California
5.1.4 IRRIGATION: Supplying water to land other than by natural means.
5.1.4.1 FLOOD IRRIGATION: delivered to whole surface(rice fields). CENTRE PIVOT IRRIGATION: overhead sprinkler-pipes-pipes moved around central point mechanically creating sprinkling pattern cover large area.
5.1.4.1.1 LIBYA 91': Great Man-made River allow crops grow in Sahara. Network draw water from aquifers channelled to coastal cities for agri, domestic, industrial.
5.1.5 MECHANISATION
5.1.5.1 more advanced machinery perform manual tasks
5.1.5.1.1 Combine harvester=<labour
5.1.6 GM: Food derived from crops modified genetic make-up.
5.1.6.1 Golden Rice: infused Vitamin A, prevent blindess
5.1.6.1.1 Bt-cotton: Gene Bt natural pesticide against heliothis caterpillar
5.1.6.1.1.1 130mil acres, 13 countries( Argentina, Canada, USA) Africa greatest hope for reducing food shortage
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