AQA GCSE History Unit 1 Topic 4 Development of the Cold War 1949-1960

Katie Nunn
Mind Map by Katie Nunn, updated more than 1 year ago
Katie Nunn
Created by Katie Nunn over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on AQA GCSE History Unit 1 Topic 4 Development of the Cold War 1949-1960, created by Katie Nunn on 12/01/2014.

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AQA GCSE History Unit 1 Topic 4 Development of the Cold War 1949-1960
1 NATO
1.1 Formed in April 1949
1.1.1 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
1.1.1.1 Set up as during Berlin Blockade war between USA & USSR seemed like a real possibility
1.1.1.1.1 At height of crisis Western powers met and signed NATO, agreed to work together
1.1.1.1.1.1 NATO was a military alliance to resist Soviet Russia.
2 The Nuclear Arms Race
2.1 USA developed atomic bomb in 1945
2.1.1 USSR developed atomic bomb 1949
2.1.1.1 1952 USA develops first Hydrogen Bomb
2.1.1.1.1 1953 USSR develops Hbomb
2.1.1.1.1.1 1956 USA develops U-2 spy planes
2.2 Arms race developed into propaganda & intelligence war
2.2.1 By 1957 it moved on to satellites and rockets ~ the space race begun
3 The Korean War 1950-53
3.1 Stalin was supporting communists in Asia
3.1.1 At the end of WW2 USSR had taken control of North Korea and set up a communist state
3.1.1.1 In the south USA had set up a gov which was a democracy
3.1.1.1.1 Relations were tense
3.1.1.1.1.1 In 1950 North Korea invaded south Korea
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 North Korean forces pushed south Korean forces back & Truman asked the UN for help
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 UN forces from many countries drove North Korean forces back to the Chinese border
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 This worried China (who were communist) as they did not want a non-communist neighbour ~ China joined the war
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 UN forces were driven back and UN commander General McArthur called for the use of the Atomic bomb
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Truman then sacked McArthur after he ignored UN instruction and openly threatened to attack China.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Once again UN forces pushed back the communists
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 At the 38th parallel in 1953 a truce was agreed
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 USA was pleased with the result in Korea ~ saw it as a successful example of containment
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 But was achieved at a price, massive damage to Korea itself & in addition observers thought that USA used the UN for its own purposes
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Berlin Blockade and the Korean War were extreme examples of Cold War relationships. USA & USSR held totally different views & neither side trusted the other. Any attempt to help another country was seen as a threat by the other side.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Normally the USSR would have vetoed the call for action but since it was boycotting the UN at this time because they denied China the right the join in 1949, it was not at the meeting to use its veto.
4 Krushchev and co-existence
4.1 Stalin died in 1953
4.1.1 Nikita Krushchev was the new leader and was less aggressive than Stalin and talked of 'Peaceful Co-existence' with the west
4.1.1.1 The 'thaw' was caused by the death of Stalin. Krushchev and Western powers were forming better relationships, 'thawing' tensions.
4.1.1.1.1 He attacked Stalin for being a dictator.
4.1.1.1.1.1 Krushchev seemed to encourage freedom within the USSR
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 On a visit to Warsaw in 1956, he indicated that the Polish should be allowed more freedom.
4.1.1.1.1.2 One of Krushchev's first actions was to sign the Austrian Sate Treaty, ending the occupation of Austria and re-establishing it as an independent sovereign state.
4.1.1.1.1.2.1 Krushchev pulled out the Red army from the Soviet-occupied zone of Austria
4.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 This helped relations between USSR and USA as it showed that Krushchev was not a man who wanted to take over the world. He seemed fair.
5 The Warsaw Pact
5.1 Kruschev set up the Warsaw Pact in 1955 ~ a military alliance of communist countries~ to rival NATO.
5.1.1 The USA responded by increasing the number of NATO troops in Germany
5.1.2 It was between all the communist countries of EE except Yugoslavia but it was dominated by USSR
5.1.2.1 Krushchev wanted, as Stalin did, protection from the west. The WP was created as a buffer against attack.
5.1.2.1.1 This would have created tension between the USA and the USSR as it seemed USSR were getting ready to protect themselves and to fight.
6 The Hungarian Uprising 1956
6.1 In July 1956, a reforming gov led by Imre Nagy took power after repeated rioting by students
6.1.1 The new gov planned to increase personal freedom and talked of taking Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact
6.1.1.1 The soviet response was harsh.
6.1.1.1.1 On 4th Nov, Krushchev sent 6000 soviet tanks into Hungary to crush the rebellion.
6.1.1.1.1.1 Soviets arrested Nagy and installed Kadar as a new leader
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 in 1958 Nagy was shot
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Soviet troops remained in Budapest
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 3000 Hungarians were killed and 200000 fled to the west.
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Western Govs were sympathetic but not willing to get involved and risk possible war with USSR
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 People in the West were horrified and Western leaders became even more determined to contain communism
6.1.2 Hungarians hate Rakosi's regime as they had no freedom of speech, they lived in fear of the secret police and he allowed soviet soldiers to be present
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