AQA GCSE History Unit 1 Topic 4 Development of the
Cold War 1949-1960
1.1 Formed in April 1949
1.1.1 North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
18.104.22.168 Set up as during Berlin Blockade war between USA & USSR seemed like a
22.214.171.124.1 At height of crisis Western powers met and signed NATO, agreed to
126.96.36.199.1.1 NATO was a military alliance to resist Soviet Russia.
2 The Nuclear Arms Race
2.1 USA developed atomic bomb in 1945
2.1.1 USSR developed atomic bomb 1949
188.8.131.52 1952 USA develops first Hydrogen Bomb
184.108.40.206.1 1953 USSR develops Hbomb
220.127.116.11.1.1 1956 USA develops U-2 spy planes
2.2 Arms race developed into propaganda & intelligence war
2.2.1 By 1957 it moved on to satellites and rockets ~ the space race begun
3 The Korean War 1950-53
3.1 Stalin was supporting communists in Asia
3.1.1 At the end of WW2 USSR had taken
control of North Korea and set up a
18.104.22.168 In the south USA had set up a gov which was a democracy
22.214.171.124.1 Relations were tense
126.96.36.199.1.1 In 1950 North Korea invaded south Korea
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 North Korean forces pushed south Korean forces back & Truman asked the UN for help
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 UN forces from many countries drove North Korean forces back to the Chinese border
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 This worried China (who were communist) as they did not want a non-communist neighbour ~ China joined the war
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 UN forces were driven back and UN commander General McArthur called for the use of the Atomic bomb
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1.1 Truman then sacked McArthur after he ignored UN instruction
and openly threatened to attack China.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 Once again UN forces pushed back the communists
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 At the 38th parallel in 1953 a truce was agreed
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 USA was pleased with the result in Korea ~ saw it as a successful example of containment
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1.1 But was achieved at a price, massive damage to Korea itself & in addition observers thought that USA
used the UN for its own purposes
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 The Berlin Blockade and the Korean War were extreme examples of Cold War relationships. USA & USSR held totally different views & neither
side trusted the other. Any attempt to help another country was seen as a threat by the other side.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Normally the USSR would have vetoed the call for action
but since it was boycotting the UN at this time because
they denied China the right the join in 1949, it was not at
the meeting to use its veto.
4 Krushchev and co-existence
4.1 Stalin died in 1953
4.1.1 Nikita Krushchev was the new leader and was less aggressive than Stalin and talked of 'Peaceful Co-existence' with the west
18.104.22.168 The 'thaw' was caused by the death of Stalin. Krushchev and Western powers were forming better relationships, 'thawing' tensions.
22.214.171.124.1 He attacked Stalin for being a dictator.
126.96.36.199.1.1 Krushchev seemed to encourage freedom within the USSR
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 On a visit to Warsaw in 1956, he indicated that the Polish should be allowed more freedom.
184.108.40.206.1.2 One of Krushchev's first actions was to sign the Austrian Sate Treaty, ending the occupation of Austria and re-establishing it as an independent sovereign state.
220.127.116.11.1.2.1 Krushchev pulled out the Red army from the Soviet-occupied zone of Austria
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 This helped relations between USSR and USA as it showed that Krushchev was not a man who wanted to take over the world. He seemed fair.
5 The Warsaw Pact
5.1 Kruschev set up the Warsaw Pact in 1955 ~ a military alliance of communist countries~ to rival NATO.
5.1.1 The USA responded by increasing the number of NATO troops in Germany
5.1.2 It was between all the communist countries of EE except
Yugoslavia but it was dominated by USSR
126.96.36.199 Krushchev wanted, as Stalin did, protection from the west. The WP
was created as a buffer against attack.
188.8.131.52.1 This would have created tension between the USA and the USSR as it seemed USSR
were getting ready to protect themselves and to fight.
6 The Hungarian Uprising 1956
6.1 In July 1956, a reforming gov led by Imre Nagy took power after repeated rioting by students
6.1.1 The new gov planned to increase personal freedom and
talked of taking Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact
184.108.40.206 The soviet response was harsh.
220.127.116.11.1 On 4th Nov, Krushchev sent 6000 soviet tanks into Hungary to crush the rebellion.
18.104.22.168.1.1 Soviets arrested Nagy and installed Kadar as a new leader
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 in 1958 Nagy was shot
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Soviet troops remained in Budapest
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 3000 Hungarians were killed and 200000 fled to the west.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 Western Govs were sympathetic but not willing to get involved and risk
possible war with USSR
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1.1 People in the West were horrified and Western leaders became even
more determined to contain communism
6.1.2 Hungarians hate Rakosi's regime as they had no freedom of
speech, they lived in fear of the secret police and he allowed soviet
soldiers to be present