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1790079

AQA Physics 2 (PART 1)

- Forces and Their Affects
- Resultant force
- whenever two objects interact, the
forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite
- a resultant force acting on an
object may cause a change it its
state of rest or movement
- if the resultant
force is acting on a
stationary object is
1) ZERO, the object
will remain
stationary 2)NOT
ZERO, the object will
accelerate in the
direction of the
resultant force
- if the resultant force
acting on a moving
object is: 1)ZERO, the
object will continue
to move at the same
speed and in the
same direction
2)NOT ZERO, the
object will accelerate
in the direction of
the resultant force

- if the resultant
force is acting on a
stationary object is
1) ZERO, the object
will remain
stationary 2)NOT
ZERO, the object will
accelerate in the
direction of the
resultant force

- a resultant force acting on an
object may cause a change it its
state of rest or movement

- whenever two objects interact, the
forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite
- Forces and Motion
- the acceleration of an object is determined
by the resultant for acting on the object and
the mass of the object
- F=Resultant Force (N)
m= Mass (Kg)
a=Acceleration
(m/s^2)
- The gradient of a
Distance-Time Graph
represents speed
- HIGHER TIER
- The VELOCITY of an object is its speed
in a given direction
- The gradient of a
Velocity-Time graph
represents acceleration
- a= Acceleration (m/s^2)
v=Final Velocity (m/s)
u= Initial Velocity (m/s)
t= Time Taken (s)
- YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO:
1) calculate acceleration
from the graph 2) calculate
distance travelled on the
graph

- a= Acceleration (m/s^2)
v=Final Velocity (m/s)
u= Initial Velocity (m/s)
t= Time Taken (s)

- The VELOCITY of an object is its speed
in a given direction

- F=Resultant Force (N)
m= Mass (Kg)
a=Acceleration
(m/s^2)

- the acceleration of an object is determined
by the resultant for acting on the object and
the mass of the object
- Forces and Braking
- when a vehicle travels at a steady
speed, the resistive forces balance the
driving force (most resistive forces are
caused by AIR RESISTANCE)
- the greater the
speed of a vehicle the
greater the braking
force needed to stop
it in a certain
distance
- THE GREATER THE SPEED, THE GREATER THE BRAKING DISTANCE
- The stopping distance of a
vehicle is the sum of the distance
the vehicle travels during the
driver's reaction time (thinking
distance) and the distance it
travels under the braking force
(braking distance).
- A driver's reaction time can be affected by
tiredness, drugs and alcohol
- When the brakes of a
vehicle are applied, work
done by the friction force
between the brakes and the
wheel reduces the kinetic
energy of the vehicle and
the temperature of the
brakes increase.
- A vehicle's braking
distance can be
affected by adverse
road and weather
conditions and poor
condition of the
vehicle.
- 'adverse road conditions'
includes wet or icy
conditions. Poor condition
of the car is limited to the
car's brakes or tyres.

- 'adverse road conditions'
includes wet or icy
conditions. Poor condition
of the car is limited to the
car's brakes or tyres.

- A vehicle's braking
distance can be
affected by adverse
road and weather
conditions and poor
condition of the
vehicle.

- A driver's reaction time can be affected by
tiredness, drugs and alcohol

- THE GREATER THE SPEED, THE GREATER THE BRAKING DISTANCE

- the greater the
speed of a vehicle the
greater the braking
force needed to stop
it in a certain
distance

- when a vehicle travels at a steady
speed, the resistive forces balance the
driving force (most resistive forces are
caused by AIR RESISTANCE)
- Forces and Terminal Velocity
- The faster an object moves through a fluid the greater the
frictional force that acts on it.
- An object falling through a
fluid will initially accelerate
due to the force of gravity.
Eventually the resultant
force will be zero and the
object will move at its
terminal velocity (steady
speed).

- An object falling through a
fluid will initially accelerate
due to the force of gravity.
Eventually the resultant
force will be zero and the
object will move at its
terminal velocity (steady
speed).
- the use of a parachute reduces the
parachutist's terminal velocity.
- YOU MUST BE ABLE TO:
Draw and interpret
velocity-time graphs for
objects that reach
terminal velocity,
including a
consideration of the
forces acting on the
object
- Calculate the weight of an
object using the force
exerted on it by a
gravitational force:
- W=Weight
(N) m= Mass
(kg) g=
Gravitational
field strength
(Newtons per
kilogram =
N/kg)

- W=Weight
(N) m= Mass
(kg) g=
Gravitational
field strength
(Newtons per
kilogram =
N/kg)

- YOU MUST BE ABLE TO:
Draw and interpret
velocity-time graphs for
objects that reach
terminal velocity,
including a
consideration of the
forces acting on the
object

- The faster an object moves through a fluid the greater the
frictional force that acts on it.
- Forces and Elasticity
- A force acting on
an object may
cause a change in
shape of the object.
- A force applied to an elastic
object such as a spring will
result in the object
stretching and storing
elastic potential energy.
- For an object that is able to recover its original shape,
elastic potential energy is stored in the object when
work is done on the object to change its shape.
- The extension of an
elastic object is directly
proportional to the
force applied, provided
that the limit of
proportionality is not
exceeded
- F= Force (N) k= 'spring constant'
(Newtons per metre, N/m) e=
Extension (m)
- F = k × e

- F = k × e

- F= Force (N) k= 'spring constant'
(Newtons per metre, N/m) e=
Extension (m)

- The extension of an
elastic object is directly
proportional to the
force applied, provided
that the limit of
proportionality is not
exceeded

- For an object that is able to recover its original shape,
elastic potential energy is stored in the object when
work is done on the object to change its shape.

- A force applied to an elastic
object such as a spring will
result in the object
stretching and storing
elastic potential energy.

- A force acting on
an object may
cause a change in
shape of the object.

- Resultant force
- The kinetic energy of objects speeding
up or slowing down
- When an object speeds up or slows down, its kinetic
energy increases or decreases. The forces which cause the
change in speed do so by doing work. The momentum of
an object is the product of the object's mass and velocity.
- Forces and Energy
- When a force
causes an
object to move
through a
distance work
is done.
- Work done, force and
distance are related by
the equation:
- Energy is transferred when work is done.

- Energy is transferred when work is done.

- Work done, force and
distance are related by
the equation:
- Discuss the
transfer of
kinetic energy in
particular
situations.
Examples might
include shuttle
re-entry or
meteorites
burning up in the
atmosphere.
- Power is the work done or
energy transferred in a given
time (work=energy)
- Gravitational potential energy is the energy that an object
has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field.
- Ep = m x g x h
- Ep = The change in Gravitational Potential Energy
(joules, J). m = The Mass (kilograms, kg). g = The
Gravitational Field Strength (Newtons per kilogram,
N/kg). h = The change in Height (metres, m)
- The Gravitational Field Strength on EARTH is 10 N/kg

- The Gravitational Field Strength on EARTH is 10 N/kg

- Ep = The change in Gravitational Potential Energy
(joules, J). m = The Mass (kilograms, kg). g = The
Gravitational Field Strength (Newtons per kilogram,
N/kg). h = The change in Height (metres, m)

- Ep = m x g x h
- The kinetic energy of an object depends on its mass and its speed

- When a force
causes an
object to move
through a
distance work
is done.
- Momentum
- Momentum is a property of moving objects
- p = momentum (kilograms
metres per second, kg m/s).
m = the mass (kilograms,
kg). v = the velocity (metres
per second, m/s)
- In a closed system
the total
momentum before
an event is equal to
the total
momentum after
the event. This is
called conservation
of momentum.
- Candidates may be required to
complete calculations involving two
objects. Examples of events are
collisions and explosions.

- p = momentum (kilograms
metres per second, kg m/s).
m = the mass (kilograms,
kg). v = the velocity (metres
per second, m/s)

- Momentum is a property of moving objects

- When an object speeds up or slows down, its kinetic
energy increases or decreases. The forces which cause the
change in speed do so by doing work. The momentum of
an object is the product of the object's mass and velocity.
- FIRST THREE SECTIONS
- Currents in electrical circuits
- The current in an electric circuit depends on the resistance of the
components and the supply.
- Static electricity
- When certain
insulating materials
are rubbed against
each other they
become electrically
charged. Negatively
charged electrons
are rubbed off one
material and onto
the other

- When certain
insulating materials
are rubbed against
each other they
become electrically
charged. Negatively
charged electrons
are rubbed off one
material and onto
the other

- The current in an electric circuit depends on the resistance of the
components and the supply.

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