A level Biology

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Mind Map by waitelisa739, updated more than 1 year ago
waitelisa739
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Biology Mind Map on A level Biology, created by waitelisa739 on 08/27/2013.
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A level Biology
1 Unit 1 - Biology and diseases
1.1 3.1.2 - The digestive system provides an interface with the environment. Digestion involves enzymic hydrolysis producing smaller molecules that can be absorbed and assimilated
1.1.1 The digestive system
1.1.2 Proteins
1.1.3 Enzyme action
1.1.4 Enzyme properties
1.1.5 Carbohydrate digestion
1.2 3.1.1 - Disease may be caused by infectious pathogens or may reflect the effects of lifestyle
1.2.1 Pathogens
1.2.2 Lifestyle
1.3 3.1.3 - Substances are exchanged between organisms and their environment by passive or active transport across exchanged surfaces. The structure of plasma membrane enables control of the passage of substances across exchange surfaces.
1.3.1 Cells
1.3.2 Plasma membranes
1.3.3 Diffusion
1.3.4 Osmosis
1.3.5 Active transport
1.3.6 Cholera
1.4 3.1.4. - The lungs of a mammal act as an interface with the environment. Lung function may be affected by pathogens and by factors relating to lifestyle
1.4.1 Lung Function
1.4.2 The biological basis of lung disease
1.5 3.1.5 - The functioning of the heart plays a central role in the circulation of blood and relates to the level of activity of an individual. Heart disease may link to factors affecting lifestyle
1.5.1 Heart structure and function
1.5.2 The biological basis of heart disease
1.6 3.1.6 - Mammalian blood possesses a number o' defensive functions
1.6.1 Principles of immunology
2 Unit 2 - The variety of living organisms
2.1 3.2.1 - Living organisms vary and this variation is influenced by genetic and environmental factors
2.1.1 Investigating variation
2.1.2 Caused of variation
2.2 3.2.2 - DNA is an information -carrying molecule. Its sequence of bases determines the structure of proteins, including enzymes
2.2.1 Structure of DNA
2.2.2 Genes and polypeptides
2.2.3 DNA and Chromosomes
2.2.4 Meiosis
2.3 3.2.3 - Similarities and differences in DNA result in genetic diversity
2.3.1 Genetic diversity
2.4 3.2.4 - The variety of life is extensive and this reflected in similarities and differences in its biochemical basis and cellular organisation
2.4.1 Haemoglobin
2.4.2 Carbohydrates
2.4.3 Cells
2.5 3.2.5 - During the cell cycle, genetic information is copied and passed to genetically identical daughter cells
2.5.1 Replication of DNA
2.5.2 Mitosis
2.5.3 Cell Cycle
2.6 3.2.6 - In complex multicellular organisms, cells are organised into tissues, tissues into organs and organs into systems
2.6.1 Cell differentiation
2.7 3.2.7 - Factors such as size and metabolic rate affect the requirements of organisms and this gives rise to adaptations such as specialised exchange surfaces an mass transport systems
2.7.1 Size and surface area
2.7.2 Gas Exchange
2.7.3 The Blood system
2.7.4 The passage of water through a plant
2.7.4.1 Mass Transport
2.8 3.2.8 - Classification is a means of organising the variety of life based on relationships between organisms and is built round the concept of species
2.8.1 Principles of taxonomy
2.9 3.2.9 - Originally, classification systems were based on observable features but more recent approaches draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms
2.9.1 Genetic Comparisons
2.9.2 DNA
2.9.3 Proteins
2.9.4 Behaviour
2.10 3.2.10 - Adaptation and selection are major components of evolution and make a significant contribution to the diversity of living organisms
2.10.1 Antibiotics
2.10.2 Genetic variation in bacteria
2.11 3.2.11 - Biodiversity may be measured within a habitat
2.11.1 Species diversity
2.11.2 Index of diversity
3 Unit 3 - Internal Assessment Investigate and practical skills in AS
3.1 3.3.1 - Investigating biological problems involves changing a specific factor, the independent variable, and measuring the changes in the dependent variable that result
3.2 3.3.2 - Implementing involves the ability to work methodically and safely, demonstrating competence in the required manipulative skills and efficiency in managing time. Raw data should be methodically collected and recorded during the course of the investigation
3.3 3.3.3 - Raw data may require processing. Processed data should be used to plot graphs that illustrate patterns and trends from which appropriate conclusions may be drawn. Scientific knowledge from the AS specification should be used to explain these conclusions.
3.4 3.3.4 - Limitations are inherent in the material and apparatus used, and procedures adopted. These limitations should be identified and methods of overcoming them suggested.
4 Unit 4 - Populations and environment
4.1 3.4.1 - The dynamic equilibrium of populations is affected by a number of factors
4.1.1 Population and ecosystems
4.1.2 Investigating populations
4.1.3 Variation in population size
4.1.4 Human populations
4.2 3.4.2 - ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes
4.2.1 ATP
4.3 3.4.3 - In photosynthesis, energy is transferred to ATP in the light-dependent reaction and the ATP I utilised in the light - independent reaction
4.3.1 Photosynthesis
4.3.2 Light dependant reaction
4.3.3 Limiting factors
4.4 3.4.4 - In respiration, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the remaining steps in the mitochondria. ATP synthesis is associated with the electron transfer chain in the membranes of mitochondria
4.4.1 Aerobic respiration
4.4.2 Anaerobic respiration
4.5 3.4.5 - Energy is transferred through ecosystems and the efficiency of transfer can be measured
4.5.1 Energy transfer
4.5.2 Energy and food production
4.6 3.4.6 - Chemical elements are recycled in ecosystems. Microorganisms play a key role in recycling these elements
4.6.1 Nutrient cycles
4.6.2 Carbon
4.6.3 Nitrogen
4.7 3.4.7 - Ecosystems are dynamic systems, usually moving from colonisation to climax communities in the process of succession
4.7.1 Succession
4.8 3.4.8 - Genetic variation within a species and geographic isolation lead to the accumulation of different genetic information in populations and the potential formation of new species
4.8.1 Inheritance
4.8.2 The Hardy -Weinberg principle
4.8.3 Selection
4.8.4 Speciation
5 Unit 5 - Control in cells and in organisms
5.1 3.5.1 - Stimuli, both internal and external, are detected and lead to response
5.1.1 Survival and response
5.1.2 Control of heart rate
5.1.3 Receptors
5.2 3.5.2 - Coordination may be chemical or electrical in nature
5.2.1 Principles
5.2.2 Nerve impulses
5.2.3 Synaptic transmission
5.3 3.5.3 - Skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract by nerves and act as effectors
5.3.1 The sliding filament theory of muscle contraction
5.3.2 Muscle effectors
5.4 3.5.4 - Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment
5.4.1 Principles
5.4.2 Temperature control
5.4.3 Control of blood glucose concentration
5.5 3.5.5 - Negative feedback helps maintain an optimal internal state in the context of a dynamic equilibrium. Positive Feedback also occurs
5.5.1 Principles
5.5.2 Control of mammalian oestrus
5.6 3.5.6 - The sequence of bases in DNA determines the structure of proteins, including enzymes
5.6.1 The genetic code
5.6.2 Polypeptide synethesis
5.6.3 Gene mutation
5.7 3.5.7 - Gene expression is controlled by a number of features
5.7.1 Most of a cell's DNA is not translated
5.7.2 Regulation of transcription and translation
5.8 3.5.8 - Gene cloning technologies allow study and alternation of gene function in order to better understand organism function and to design new industrial and medical processes.
5.8.1 Gene cloning and tranfer
5.8.2 Gene therapy
5.8.3 Medical diagnosis
5.8.4 Genetic fingerprinting
6 Unit 6 - Internal Assessment Investigative and practical skills in A2
6.1 3.6.1 - Investigating biological problems involves changing a specific factor, the independent variable, and measuring the changes in the dependant variable that result
6.2 3.6.2 - Implementing involves the ability to work methodically and safely, demonstrating competence in the required manipulative skills and efficiency in managing time. Raw data should be methodically collected and recorded during the course of the investigation
6.3 3.6.3 - Data should be analysed by means of appropriate statistical test. This allows calculation of the probability of an event being due to chance. Appropiate conclusions should be drawn and scientific knowledge from the A level specification should be used to explain these conclusion
6.4 3.6.4 - Limitations are inherent in the material and apparatus used and procedures adopted. These limitations should be identified, evaluated and methods of overcoming them suggested.
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