Who was to blame for the Cold War?

Will Barnes
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Mind map for the Cold War, OCR Modern World History GCSE YR10-11

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Will Barnes
Created by Will Barnes over 4 years ago
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Who was to blame for the Cold War?
1 1.Beginnings
1.1 Rise of The Superpowers
1.1.1 USA and USSR had emerged as "superpowers"due to military strength
1.2 Damage from WW2
1.2.1 By 1945, millions were sick, hungry or homeless. Disruption meat it was very difficult to be certain about death toll. USSR lost millions as a result of war, therefore Stalin was determined to make USSR secure in future. China also suffered millions of civilian casualties owing to its war with Japan.
1.3 Conflicting Ideologies: Communism and Capatalism
1.3.1 In the war the USSR (communist superpower) had united with USA (capatalism superpower) to defeat facism. However, these two ideas were very different, economic systems strongly opposed to one another.
1.3.2 Differences
1.3.2.1 USA
1.3.2.1.1 Democratic government: President and Congress were chosen in free elections.
1.3.2.1.2 Capitalist economy: Business and property were privately owned . Individuals could make profits in business move jobs if they wished.
1.3.2.1.3 USA world's wealthiest country, but due to capitalism there were great contrasts in wealth.
1.3.2.1.4 USA believed in freedom of individual and in gov. by consent
1.3.2.1.5 20s and 30s USA followed policy of "Isolationism", but now faced with Comm. USA was prepared to help and support people and countries that wanted to become democracies with capitalist economies, seen as defence to people's freedom against a system they did not want.
1.3.2.2 USSR
1.3.2.2.1 Communist state under Stalin's dictatorship
1.3.2.2.2 People could vote in elections for Supreme Soviet, only votes for members of Communist Party were allowed, Supreme soviet didn't really have much power anyway.
1.3.2.2.3 People's lives closely controlled, rights of individual seen as less important than good of society as a whole.
1.3.2.2.4 Planned economy. Government OWNED ALL INDUSTRY and planned what every factory should produce.
1.3.2.2.5 Standard of living USSR< USA. Unemploymentlow in USSR, not the extremes of wealth and poverty as in USA.
1.3.2.2.6 Attacked many times unlike USA. Stalin determied not to allow repeat, believed USSR could only be safe if countries on its borders were controlled by Communist governments. IF this didn't happen he flt the USA would set up hostile countries on his borders.
2 2. Allied Conferences at Yalta and Potsdam and roles of Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin.
2.1 By 1945 the defeat of Germany was seen as a certainty. Allied leaders turned to problems pece would bring, set up conferences to discuss.
2.2 Yalta Conference, February 1945
2.2.1 Germany had not yet been defeated
2.2.2 Allied leaders got along well despite differences.
2.2.3 POINTS THAT WERE AGREED
2.2.3.1 Germany divided into 4 zones, run by USA, France, Britain and USSR.
2.2.3.2 Berlin to be divided into 4 zones (Berlin was i the "Soviet Zones")
2.2.3.3 Countries of Eastern Europe allowed to hold free elections to decide how they would be goverened.
2.2.3.4 USSR would join war against Japan in return for territory in MAnchruia and Sakhalin Island.
2.2.4 DISAGREEMENTS
2.2.4.1 POland: Stalin wanted to move Poland's frontier westward into german territory. Churchill and Roosevelt were unhappy. With 1000s of Soviet Troops in Poland there was little alternative but to agree. Stalin agreed not to support Communist rebels in Greece to compensate.
2.3 POTSDAM CONFERENCE July-August 1945
2.3.1 Conference arraged in Berlin suburb of Potsdam in July 1945, 2 months after the war in Europe had ended, 5 months after Yalta.
2.3.2 Changes that had taken place since Yalta
2.3.2.1 Changing leaders: April 1945 President Roosevelt died suddenly and was succeeded by Vice-President Harry Truman, much more anti-communist, suspicious of Stalin's intentions. Clement Attlee also replaced Winston Churchill as British PM.
2.3.2.2 Victory in Europe and Soivet Army: Germany surrendered 8th May 1945, Britain and USA immediately began to reduce forces in Europe, but Soviets, who occupied much of Eastern Europe, did not, Stalin ignored British and American protests about the creation of Communist gov. in Poland, saying that they needed to protect USSR's borders
2.3.2.3 The atom bomb: Truman informed Stalin about new weapon he was about to use in Japan, successful testing of a bomb in July 1945 prompted a new arms race between USA and USSR
2.3.3 Continued discussions and actions taken
2.3.3.1 Nazi Party to be banned, leaders tried as war criminals
2.3.3.2 Oder-NEisse line (Two rivers) was to form part of future border between Poland and Germay
2.3.4 DISAGREEMENTS AND TENSIONS AT POTSDAM
2.3.4.1 Britain and USA denied Stalin naval basem saw no need but Stalin saw as evidence that his allies mistrusted
2.3.4.2 Stalin wanted to take more reparations from Germany and Britain and USA (REPARATIONS = REPAIR OR COMPENSATION FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE WAR). USA and Britain did not wish to cripple Germay, they had seen results of reparations after WW1. Stalin was suspicious about why his allies seemed to want to protect Germany and even help it recover.
2.3.4.3 Stalin had set up Communist gov. in Lublin then the capital of Poland, Britain preferred non-Commuist Polish Gov. which had lived in exile in Britain throughout the war. Truman and Attlee were very suspicious of Stalin's motives in setting up a Communist gov.
3 3. SOVIET EXPANSION IN EASTERN EUROPE
3.1 The Soviet Army advanced through large areas of eastern Europe when driving back the Germans. 1 year after war, many Soviet troops remained in these areas, with Communist governments elected or imposed
3.2 "The Iron Curtain: In a speech in March 1946, former British PM Churchill claimed "Iron Curtain" had descended across Europe separating democratic West from Communist states of eastern Europe.
3.3 Creating satellites: As promised in Yalta, elections were held in eastern European countries, but evidence suggests they were rigged allowing USSR-backed Communist parties to take control. In areas such as Bulgaria, Albania, Poland, Romania and Hungary any opponents to Communists had been beaten, murdered or frightened into submission. By May 1948 all e. European states had Communist gov. Stalin created Cominform and Comecon, trading alliance of countries became known as "satellite states" as governments and economies were heavily dependent on USSR.
3.4 Cominform 1947: An alliance of Communist countries maybe as response to Marshall Aid. AIi was to spread Stalin's Communist ideas, helped Stalin tighten holdl on Communist allies, restricted contact with West. Oly Marshall Tito of Yugoslavia was not prepared to accept Stalin's leadership and he split with Moscow. Yugoslavia remained Communist but was cut off from any type of support from USSR.
3.5 Comecon 1949: Set up to co-ordinate the production and trade of eastern European countries, favoured USSR.
4 4. US Policy on eastern Europe
4.1 Greece
4.1.1 Asked USA for help 1947, under attack from Communists
4.1.2 Under foreign policy initiative, known as Truman Doctrine , USA provided with arms and money
4.1.3 Communists defeated 1949, civil war
4.2 Truman Doctrine 1947
4.2.1 Truman feared spread of Communism.
4.2.2 USA provided military and economic aid to Turkey & Greece
4.3 Marshall Aid 1947
4.3.1 Truman believed poverty and hardship provided breeding ground for Communism. Also important for US to have trading partners
4.3.2 US Secretary of State George Marshall visited Europe and came up with European recovery program.
4.3.3 Aim was to stop spread of Communism and to help economies of Europe to recover ( eventually provide market for US exports)
4.3.4 BUT only 16 WESTERN European countries accepted, Stalin refused for USSR and banned eastern European countries accepting.
4.4 Communist takeover Czechoslovakia 1948
4.4.1 Only eastern European country that considered accepting Marshall aid not fully part of Stalin's "eastern bloc", Communists not fully in control.
4.4.2 Spring 48 elections due, seemed Communists would do badly, but they organized protests and marches.
4.4.3 Non-comm. ministers resigned, Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk died under suspicious circumstances. May 48 elections took place but only Communists could stand and so they won.
5 5. Berlin Blockade and immediate consequences
5.1 Causes
5.1.1 Britain and USA wanted to help Germany to recover, France unsure.
5.1.2 Germany shattered by war
5.1.3 Stalin was suspicious about US and British, did not want Germany to recover.
5.1.4 1948 zones merged "Trizonia", with Marshall aid W. Germany began to recover, E. Germany faced poverty and hunger
5.1.5 Stalin thought US and British were building up W. Germany to attack him, especially when they introduced "Deutsche Mark" currency.
5.2 The Berlin Blockade
5.2.1 Effects
5.2.1.1 May 49 British French and US zones became Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)
5.2.1.2 October 49 Soviet-occupied zone in Germany became German Democratic Republic (GDR)
5.2.2 June 1948 Soviet troops set up road and rail blocks to prevent goods reaching Berlin, hoped Allies would withdraw.
5.3 Berlin Airlift
5.3.1 Allied response to blockade, fly in supplies by air
5.3.2 For next 10 months Allies supplied West Berlin with everything it needed by air, 1 plane landed every 3 mins day and night
5.4 NATO
5.4.1 North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949 military alliance contained most of w. European states + US and Canada. Purpose to defend members from attack.
5.5 Warsaw Pact 1955
5.5.1 Soviet response the W. Germany joining NATO, had not forgotten damage Germany did to USSR in WW2.