1.1.1 Hoping to get votes from the white Africans, the National Party promises to
make laws severely restricting black rights if they win the general election.
The National Party defeats the United Party and apartheid begins.
2 June 1952
2.1 The African National Congress starts the
2.1.1 Volunteers begin a peaceful resistance to apartheid by breaking the
laws they think are wrong. The peaceful protests include black people
sitting on benches marked for white people only and being out in the
city after the curfew set for blacks.
3.1 The Bantu Education Act is passed.
3.1.1 A law is passed that creates a separate education system for
blacks and whites. Blacks are trained to prepare them for a life
as part of the working class since it is not expected that they will
be allowed to do anything more than that.
4 December 1956
4.1 Nelson Mandela is arrested for treason.
4.1.1 Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid activist, is arrested with several other people for fighting against
apartheid. He is charged with treason, but after a four-year trial he is found not guilty.
5.1 Separate homelands are created for the major black groups.
5.1.1 The government passes new laws to create separate homelands, called Bantustans, for the
major black groups in the country. The government does this to stop blacks from being citizens of
6 March 21, 1960
6.1 Sixty-nine people are killed in the Sharpeville Massacre.
6.1.1 Apartheid requires blacks to carry passbooks, which contain personal
information such as name, date of birth, and photos. When protestors
show up at the Sharpeville police station without their passbooks, a riot
breaks out and police kill 69 people. 10 of which were children and 8 of
which were women. 180 more people were injured.
7 August 5, 1962
7.1 Nelson Mandela is arrested for treason. (again)
7.1.1 Mandela was the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, part of the African National Congress. He is arrested
for his role in bombing government targets and sentenced to life in prison.
8 November 11, 1965
8.1 Rhodesia illegally gains independence from Great Britain.
8.1.1 Prime Minister Ian Smith announces that Rhodesia has broken away from Great Britain and that
whites will control the government. Great Britain had been prepared to only grant independence if
blacks were given some of the power in government.
9 November 1974
9.1 South Africa is expelled from the United Nations.
9.1.1 Due to apartheid, South Africa is removed from the United Nations. South Africa is not allowed back
into the United Nations until apartheid ends in 1994.
10 June 16, 1976
10.1 More than 600 students are killed in the Soweto Massacre.
10.1.1 High school students in Soweto start a protest for an improved education system for blacks. Police
break up the protest with tear gas and bullets, killing more than 600 people.
11 September 12, 1977
11.1 Anti-apartheid activist Steve Bilko is killed.
11.1.1 Steve Bilko, one of the organizers of the Soweto protest, is arrested on August 18, 1977. He dies in
police custody on September 12 and the cause of death is severe brain damage, likely from being
beaten by police
12.1 Musicians form Artists United Against Apartheid.
12.1.1 Musician Steven Van Zandt forms Artists United Against
Apartheid after touring South Africa. The album "Sun
City" comes out on December 7 and features several
anti-apartheid songs, including "Silver and Gold" by U2.
13 August 12, 1986
13.1 Paul Simon releases the album "Graceland."
13.1.1 Paul Simon traveled to South Africa to make
the album "Graceland" with local South African
musicians. When the album is released on
August 12, 1986, Simon is criticized by many
people, including the African National
Congress, for breaking the cultural boycott.
14.1 February 11, 1990
14.1.1 Nelson Mandela is released from prison.
22.214.171.124 After 27 years in prison, Nelson Mandela is freed from prison. Mandela thanks
President de Klerk for helping set him free, but says that there is more work to
be done to end apartheid.
14.2 February 2, 1990
14.2.1 President Frederik Willem de Klerk ends
the ban on the African National Congress.
126.96.36.199 Even though he supported
segregation at one time,
President Frederick Willem de
Klerk lifts the ban on the African
National Congress in 1990. In
1993, de Klerk wins the Nobel
Peace Prize with Nelson Mandela
for helping end apartheid.
15 May 10, 1994
15.1 Nelson Mandela becomes president of South Africa.
15.1.1 In the country's first election that allowed both whites and blacks to vote, Nelson Mandela is
elected president of South Africa. He is the first black president in the history of South Africa.