Models of Addictive Behaviour - Smoking

Sandie Garland
Mind Map by Sandie Garland, updated more than 1 year ago
Sandie Garland
Created by Sandie Garland over 5 years ago
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A level Psychology (PSYA4 Section B) Mind Map on Models of Addictive Behaviour - Smoking, created by Sandie Garland on 04/01/2015.

Resource summary

Models of Addictive Behaviour - Smoking
1 LEARNING
1.1 Initiation
1.1.1 Social Learning Theory
1.1.1.1 Watch a role model smoke and see them feel more relaxed and thier popularity increase - you undergo vicarious reinforcement - imitate their behaviour to gain the rewards
1.1.1.1.1 Duncan: exposure to peer models increase the liklihood that teenagers will begin smoking
1.1.1.1.2 Hanewinkel: teens that had seen smoking in films were more likely to smoke after one year than those who had not
1.1.2 Operant Conditioning
1.1.2.1 When you smoke you are positively rewarded with a dopamine rush and feel relaxed - positively reinforced - unconsciously encouraged to repeat the behaviour
1.2 Maintenance
1.2.1 Classical Conditioning
1.2.1.1 Over time an unconscious association formed between what is around you when you smoke and the rewards of smoking - acts as a trigger
1.2.1.1.1 Hogarth: amount of craving for a cigarette increased significant when a conditioned stimulus relating to smoking was presented to the smoker
1.2.1.1.2 eg. Normally smoke when you go to the pub - going to the pub will act as a trigger
1.2.2 Operant Conditioning
1.2.2.1 When you smoke you are positively rewarded with a dopamine rush and feel relaxed - positively reinforced - unconsciously encouraged to repeat the behaviour
1.3 Relapse
1.3.1 Operant Conditioning
1.3.1.1 Strong withdrawal symptons - feel uncomfortable - punishment - smoking makes it go away - negative reinforcement
1.3.2 Classical conditioning
1.3.2.1 Over time an unconscious association formed between what is around you when you smoke and the rewards of smoking - acts as a trigger
1.3.2.1.1 Eg. its your lunch break at work when you would normally smoke - acts as a trigger
1.3.2.1.2 Hogarth: amount of craving for a cigarette increased significant when a conditioned stimulus relating to smoking was presented to the smoker
2 COGNITIVE
2.1 Initiation
2.1.1 Self Medication
2.1.1.1 Smoke to treat psychological symptoms - perceived as dealing with the problem - mood regulation reduces stress
2.1.2 Theory of Reasoned Action
2.1.2.1 Behaviour an interaction of norms and attitudes - not equally weighted - combined to create behavioural intention - attitude: it'll help me lose weight - norms: its cool = smoking
2.1.2.1.1 Conner et al: behavioural intentions were generally a good predictor of later smoking
2.1.2.1.2 Guo: 14,000 Chinese students - TRA was a useful predictor of later smoking - cross cultural validity
2.2 Maintenance
2.2.1 Self Medication
2.2.1.1 Irrational beliefs eg. I can stop whenever I want, it's only one more
2.2.1.2 Beck's Vicious Cycle - become dependant on addiction to cope with their problems - leads to more issues eg. financial - more stressed - repeat behaviour
2.2.2 Theory of Reasoned Action
2.2.2.1 Behaviour an interaction of norms and attitudes - not equally weighted - combined to create behavioural intention - attitude: i'll never get lung cancer - norms: its cool = smoking
2.2.2.1.1 Conner et al: behavioural intentions were generally a good predictor of later smoking
2.2.2.1.2 Guo: 14,000 Chinese students - TRA was a useful predictor of later smoking - cross cultural validity
2.3 Relapse
2.3.1 Self Medication
2.3.1.1 Faced with stressful situations again and remember perceiving smoking to help - believe you can have one last one - smoke to solve problems
2.3.1.1.1 Kreek et al: recovering heroin addicts given drug to test stress system - ACTH levels rose x2 as the normal due due to their prior use of herion making their system hypersensitive
2.3.2 Theory of Reasoned Action
2.3.2.1 Behaviour an interaction of norms and attitudes - not equally weighted - combined to create behavioural intention - attitude: it' only one more - norms: its cool = smoking
2.3.2.1.1 DeVries: smokers who perceive smoker to have more benefits and smoking to have relatively few are more likely to relapse
3 BIOLOGICAL
3.1 Initiation
3.1.1 Smoke first cigarette and the nicotine attaches to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the VTA - creates an action potential - activates nucleus accumbens - dopamine released - feeling of reward
3.1.1.1 Di Chaira - studies on rats show that nicotine stimulates dopamine transmission in specific brain areas - in particular the nucleus accumbens - effects of nicotine resemble rewards such as food and sex
3.1.2 A1 allele of DRD2 - deficit of dopamine - under rewarded - seek experiences to stimulate meslimbic system - smoking provides a disproportionate reward
3.1.2.1 Carmelli: MZ twins had a significantly higher concordance for starting smoking than DZ twins
3.2 Maintenance
3.2.1 Number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors needed to trigger an action potential increase - down regulation - tolerance of nicotine - smoke more to get the reward of dopamine
3.2.2 Those with the A1 allele of the DRD2 gene do not have enough receptors and suffer a deficit of dopamine and are under rewarded - as smoking stimulates the mesolimbic systems and provides a disproportionate reward the behaviour is maintained
3.2.2.1 Carmelli: MZ twins had a significantly higher concordance for maintaining smoking than DZ twins
3.3 Relapse
3.3.1 No smoking = no reward - lower than normal dopamine levels - physical dependancy on smoking - smoke again to raise dopamine levels
3.3.2 Those with the A1 allele of the DRD2 genes will be under rewarded again and need their mesolimbic system to be stimulated
3.3.2.1 Carmelli: MZ twins had a significantly higher concordance for quitting smoking than DZ twins
3.4 Ming: Gender differences
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