Memory (AS Level Revision Mindmap)

eleanor.louise98
Mind Map by eleanor.louise98, updated more than 1 year ago
eleanor.louise98
Created by eleanor.louise98 about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Memory (AS Level Revision Mindmap), created by eleanor.louise98 on 01/05/2015.

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Memory (AS Level Revision Mindmap)
1 Key words
1.1 Encoding - when information comes into our memory system (from sensory input) it need to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored. Information in STM tends to be encoded acoustically, where as LTM information tends to be encoded semantically.
1.1.1 Acoustic encoding involves encoding information according to how it sounds.
1.1.2 Semantic encoding involves coding information according to its meaning.
1.2 Capacity - this is a measure of how much we can hold in our memory. STM is very limited in capacity, while LTM has potentially unlimited capacity.
1.3 Duration - STM has very limited, whereas LTM has potentially unlimited duration.
1.4 Storage - once encoded, we need to store the memory trace somewhere within the memory system.
1.5 Retrieval - Storing a memory isn't enough - we also need to be able to recall and remember it.
2 Types of memory
2.1 Long term memory (LTM)
2.2 Short term memory (STM)
3 Baddeley 1966 Encoding in the STM and LTM
3.1 Aim
3.1.1 Baddeley's starting point was the knowledge that people tend to make acoustic errors when using STM. (Conrad 1964)
3.1.2 He aimed to gather further and additional information whether LTM was affected by acoustic confusitions. He wanted to see if the memory store was affected by semantic confusions - words that meant the same thing.
3.2 Experiment testing encoding in STM and LTM
3.2.1 STM -75 young servicemen were divided into 4 groups. each group heard one word list. this list was repeated 4 times. after each trial participants were shown a list of all words jumbled up and asked to recall them in the correct order. this was done because it was the only way to ensure that acoustic confusions were detected. participants just had to get the right order.
3.2.2 LTM - 72 participants were divided into 4 groups ad shown one of the lists. this time recall was not immediate. there was a 20 minute retention interval during which the participants performed another task. then they were asked to recall the list as before. this was repeated 4 times.
3.2.3 Findings
3.2.3.1 In all experiments participants remembered more words on each successful trial, though this levelled off after 4.
3.2.4 Conclusions
3.2.4.1 Experiment 1 shows that words in STM tend to be remembered in terms of their sounds (acoustically). This is indicated by the difficulty participants had when the words sounded the same.
3.2.4.2 Experiment 2 shows that words in LTM tend to be coded in terms of their meaning (semantically). this is indicated by the difficulty participants had when the words meant similar things.
3.3 Encoding AGE - an age deficit in encoding suggests that older people encode words and other events in a way that is different from encoding be younger people, although evidence for this is rather mixed. there is some evidence to indicate that younger people use more precise elaborations when presented with simple sentences, while older people benefit more from elaborations provided by others.
3.4 Criticisms
3.4.1 STM may not always use an acoustic code. Relys on acoustic code for storing information, but some experiments some that visual codes are also used in STM.
3.4.2 There is more than one kind of LTM. The experiments only use one type of memory we actually have lots of different kind of memory.
4 The muti-store model of memory was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffen. it starts at the sensory memory where information passes though into the STM, information can be retrieved though external stimulus. the STM can store 7 +/- 2 items and will only last for 3 - 30 seconds. it is remembered in the form of acoustic coding. (sound)
4.1 By rehearsal information can be transferred from STM to LTM. The LTM is unlimited but some information can be forgotten by decay and the interference of new information which can also cause confusion.
4.2 Glanzer and Cunitz
4.2.1 Aim - to see if they could find evidence for the existence of separate STM and LTM memory stores.
4.2.2 Procedure - participants were presented with a list of words, on at a time, and then asked to recall the words in any order. participants were divided into 2 groups: immediate recall group and Delayed recall group.
4.2.3 Findings - participants in immediate group remembered the first and last words best, while participants in delayed group remembered words at beginning of the list. Neither group recalled words in the middle of the list.
4.2.4 Conclusion - Both groups remembered the words from the start because they were stored in the LTM. Words at the end were stored in the STM. When recall was delayed by a distractor task it prevented maintenance rehearsal and therefor affected the regency effect without changing the primary effect.
5 Atkinson and Shiffin (1968) suggests memory is a flow of information though a system. There are 3 distinct stages of the system: Sensory, Short term and Long term memory. Information passes though each stage in a liner fashion. Information from External senses enter the sensory memory in an uncoded way for brief periods of time so can be passed into short term memory.
6 CASE STUDIES (HM AND CLIVE WEARING)
6.1 HM - Scoville and Millner, 1957 studied a man referred to as HM. they had there Hippocampus removed to help with his epilepsy. But could not form new long term memory, this suggests that hippocampus may function as a 'gateway' though which new memories must pass before entering into permanent storage.
6.2 CLIVE WEARING - Clive's condition is where he can't transfer information from STM into LTM. Both of his hippocampus' are damaged. he suffered from viral stipulates. His LTM didn't work anymore as he can't remember any old or new memories. E.g. his wifes name and his wedding day. He got angry with himself that he couldn't remember.
7 Working memory model
7.1 The Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974) Working memory is short-term memory. Instead of all information going into one single store, there are different systems for different types of information. Working memory consists of a central executive which controls and coordinates the operation of two subsystems: the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketch pad.
7.2 Central Executive: Drives the whole system (e.g. the boss of working memory) and allocates data to the subsystems (VSS & PL). It also deals with cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic and problem solving.
7.3 Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (inner eye): Stores and processes information in a visual or spatial form. The VSS is used for navigation.
7.4 The phonological loop is the part of working memory that deals with spoken and written material. It can be used to remember a phone number. It consists of two parts o Phonological Store (inner ear) – Linked to speech perception Holds information in speech-based form (i.e. spoken words) for 1-2 seconds. o Articulatory control process (inner voice) – Linked to speech production. Used to rehearse and store verbal information from the phonological store.
8 Strategies for memory improvement
8.1 The method of Loci - the method of loci is to remember something E.g. working memory model you image a journey though a familiar landscape or location such as a house where you live.
8.2 Verbal Mnemonic - a variety of memory improvement techniques focus on words. E.g. an acronym, an acrostic poem.
8.3 Visual imagery Mnemonic - visual imagery mnemonic systems take advantage of this fact to create systems that allow you to commit virtually unlimited amounts of information to memory. using imagery can make learning more fun and interesting. Visual mnemonic techniques generally involve two tasks: 1.forming mental images 2. making associations between images.
8.4 Mind mapping - splitting up information into smaller sections can help us retain the information more easily than large chucks of reading.
8.5 Rehearsal - rehearsal is a term used by memory researchers to refer to mental techniques for helping us remember information.
9 Jacobs, 1887 (Capacity)
9.1 Aims - to demonstrate how much information could be stored in STM. He develop the technique that was to isolate the one behaviour he was interested in, he called it serial digit span.
9.2 Procedures - the digit span technique was to access the capacity of the participants' memory. He used both letters (omitting W) and digits (omitting & because it had 2 syllables). Reading of items was paced using a metronome so that the experimenter said a sound every 1/2 second.
9.3 Findings - Jacobs found that participants could recall more digits that letters. The average span for digits was 9.3 items, whereas letters were 7.3.
9.4 Conclusions - showed that STM has a limited capacity of somewhere between 5 and 9 items depending on material used and age. Jacobs suggests that it maybe because there were only 9 digits and 25 letters. it might be due to a gradual increase in brain capacity or it maybe that people develop strategies to improve their digit span as they get older, such as chunking.
9.4.1 Chunking
9.4.1.1 information that is grouped into sections so it is easier to remember.
9.4.1.2 AGE - apper to be significant age differences, as children get older, their memory span also increases from 2 at age 2, 4 at age 5, 6 at age 9 and then 7 as an adult.
10 Bahrick et al. (1975 )Study into the duration of Long Term Memory
10.1 Their aim was to investigate the duration of very long term memory (VLTM), he wanted to show memory could last over several decades or even a life time. Also to see if VLTM is better than found in l laboratory studies.
10.2 Procedures •Nearly 400 participants aged 17 to 74 where given various tests such as •Ø A free – recall test. They were asked to name all the people in their graduating class. •Ø A photo recognition test. The participants were shown 50 photos that were a mixture of photos from the person’s high school year book while others weren’t. •Ø A name recognition test of ex-school friends Along with a photo matching test and a name matching test.
10.3 Findings •Test subjects who were tested with in fifteen years of graduation where 90% accurate with identifying names and faces (visual and verbal recognition). •After forty-eight years it declined to around 80% for name recognition and 70% for photo recognition. •Free recall test results – after fifteen years this was around 60% accurate, that dropped to 30% after 48 years.
10.4 Conclusion Evidence shows that very long term memory works up to 57 years after graduation, but there is a loss of memory over time. People remember visual recall (photos) better than verbal recall (names). This suggests that in real life our memories contain a large amount of information, but we are not always able to recall it. When given a recognition test this jogs our memory and we can remember it (VLTM). Therefore our vast store of memory is there but not always easily accessed.
11 Peterson and Peterson
11.1 Aim - To investigate the duration of short-term memory, and provide empirical evidence for the multi-store model.
11.2 Procedure - A lab experiment was conducted in which 24 participants (psychology students) had to recall trigrams (meaningless three-consonant syllables, e.g. TGH). To prevent rehearsal participants were asked to count backwards in threes or fours from a specified random number until they saw a red light appear. This is known as the brown Peterson technique. Participants were asked to recall trigrams after intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds.
11.3 Findings - The longer the interval delay the less trigrams were recalled. Participants were able to recall 80% of trigrams after a 3 seconds delay. However, after 18 seconds less than 10% of trigrams were recalled correctly.
11.4 Conclusion - Short-term memory has a limited duration when rehearsal is prevented. It is thought that this information is lost from short-term memory from trace decay. The results of the study also show the short-term memory is different from long-term memory in terms of duration. Thus supporting the multi-store model of memory.-
11.5 Criticisms: This experiment has low ecological validity as people do not try to recall trigrams in real life.
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