1.1 "Only an
can act with
which is free"
1.2 Pronosis -
1.3 Omniscience -
1.4 If God is omnipotent then he
can limit some elements of
his omniscience, to allow for
free will to exist alongside
God being omniscience.
1.5 Omniscience could mean that
God know everything that has
ever happened, however you
could argue that God does not
and cannot know the future
as it doesn't exist - C.S.Lewis.
1.6 Molinism argues
and free will can
exist because when
making a decision,
God can know the
outcome of every
path but this does
not mean that God
knows what pain
choose. God knows
everything but has
2 Protestant Determinism
2.1 Erasmus writes in 'On the Freedom
of the Will' that God made human
being with free will. He argues that
despite the fall , humans still have
2.2 Martin Luther didn't agree with
Erasmus and so wrote a letter to
counter Erasmus' argument
entitled 'On the Bondage of the
2.2.1 God foreknows all things and
he can't be hindered in this
prescience and predestination,
nothing can take place but to
2.2.2 God has put out salvation out of the way
of our will and has taken it under his
own; therefore it doesn't matter what we
do in life, the decision still lies with God.
2.2.3 Luther argues that doing good actions generates arrogance and pride - these emotions send you to hell!
2.2.4 God alone decides who has salvation.
3.1 John Calvin, the creator of
Calvinism, was influenced by
Martin Luther. He realised that
only a few people within the
Bible are actually doing good.
3.2 "For many are
called, but few
are chosen" -
3.3 Calvin preached that God
calls the few and damns
3.4 The 'elect of God' are to be saved; God has pre-selected people before they are born.
3.5 There are two types of salvation:
3.5.1 Double handed salvation - God looks
through time and reaches to those who
need to be saved and they reach back.
3.5.2 Single handed salvation - It is all
predetermined, God see through
the corridor of time and selects
those to be saved.
22.214.171.124 Irresistible graced.
126.96.36.199 Calvinism follows this.
188.8.131.52 Removes all moral responsibility.
3.6 If God is all loving
and all his creation
is sacred, why is
there even the
'elect of God'? Plus
Jesus taught agape
and so why if God's
love allowed to be
3.7 Predestination is contrary to God's gift of free will. William Laud
suggested that we cannot know good without God's assistance, as
so the decision between good and evil is down to the individual.
3.8 Calvin based his theory on
scriptural revelation but
because of Jesus' sacrifice,
anyone can reach up to God,
meaning that Calvin read
understood the Bible wrong.
3.8.1 "through the obedience of the one man,
the many will be made righteous".
3.9 The Antinomians followed the logic of Calvinism to suggest that
those already chose could do what they wanted and do not have to
follow moral laws.
4 Soft Determinism
4.1 During the 17th Century,
there was a large movement
towards soft determinism,
which is the argument that
humans have limited free
will within the constraints of
the laws of nature.
4.2 John Locke (who doesn't believe in
soft determinism!) influences Hume
by arguing that humans develop
morality throughout there lives.
4.2.1 His 'locked
4.2.2 According to Locke, the mind is a
blank slate, a 'tabula rasa', which is
filled by life's experiences which
shape someone's moral framework.
4.2.3 "White paper,
void of all
without any ideas
with all the
4.3 David Hume
4.3.1 The constant union of
objects - events are
of casual links between
objects e.g. a volcanic
eruption causes flights
to de delayed.
184.108.40.206 Hard determinists claim that soft determinists aren't
going far enough. If you agree that a chain of
causation exists and affects our decisions, then you
cannot break free of that chain, there is no free will.
4.3.2 The inference of the mind - link
between predetermined events
and what you decide, the way the
mind infers ideas from empirical
220.127.116.11 Imagine you face a robber and
you need to choose whether
you fight or flight; if soft
determinism were true and
you are just responding to
determined events, then you
would only decide to fight the
robber if you were stronger -
this is not free will.
4.3.3 Predetermined events create
choice, without these
predetermined events there
would be no free will.
4.3.4 Free will is compatible with a
physically determined universe,
hence why they theory can be
referred to as Compatiblism.
4.3.5 Liberty of spontaneity -
according to Hume, we
make our decisions
constantly make decisions
that don't seem calculated
or thought through - it
doesn't mean that they
4.3.6 Rejection of chance - things can't be determined
by chance, events are determined and
individuals respond to decisions by using their
free will, even if it is a spontaneous decision.
18.104.22.168 An example of this would be Buridan's Donkey - a donkey wouldn't be able
to decide between two identical bales of hay because it does not have free
will; whereas a human would be able to decide between two identical loaves
of bread because of free will.
4.4 William James argued that dilemma of
determinism is that it is "a quagmire of
evasion" as it avoids all the big
4.4.1 Fully believes in
4.4.2 "My first act of free will, shall
be to believe in free will".
4.5 Immanuel Kant is against the "idea that free
will is simply freedom from coercion". He calls
this a "wretched subterfuge" - a disgusting lie
and so doesn't agree with soft determinism.
5.1 The idea that we have complete free will and the
world is not predetermined.
5.2 Thomas Reid put forward his theory of
common-sense philosophy. He agreed that
human beings are limited by nature but this
doesn't affect their free will; free will is
5.3 Humans are morally
responsible for their
5.4 Frederich Hayek (1899-1992) is known as a
libertarianism supporter. He was a critic of
communication arguing that it was taking away
people's free will. In 'The Road to Serfdom' he
argued that the only way that people can be free is
through libertarianism and capitalism.
5.4.1 Hayek's key to freedom: Moral relativism
+ Capitalism + Multiculturalism = 'Pick
and Mix Society'
22.214.171.124 This would create a
society where humans
have the freedom to
lifestyle they liked as
long as they don't
harm others in doing
5.5 J.J.Smart provides an
suggesting that it just
cannot be possible
that we have free
5.5.1 P1. Either the world is determined.
126.96.36.199 P2. If determinism is true then our
choices are not free.
188.8.131.52.1 P3. An undetermined would is random.
184.108.40.206.1.1 P4. If indeterminism is true the our choices aren't free, they are random.
220.127.116.11.1.1.1 C. Therefore we don't posesss free will.
5.5.2 Many people think that
maybe the physical world is
not determined because of
the existence of
randomness at a quantum
level. Smart argues that if
this is true then we still do
not possess free will;
random decisions are no
more free that determined
5.6 Phenomenological argument
5.6.1 Something we observe or
5.6.2 Libertarianism is how
experience free will.
5.6.3 P1. Our experiences are usually reliable.
18.104.22.168 P2. We experience free will.
22.214.171.124.1 C. Therefore we are free.
5.7 Free will is power over our
thoughts, this power is
6 Hard Determinism
6.1 As the causal universe is determined, so too are our
thoughts - therefore we have no free will.
6.2 Deterministic view of the physical universe, the
chain of causation that effects objects has an effect
upon subjects in the same way.
6.3 fMRI scanners can prove that
our thoughts are
predetermined because it can
see, 6 seconds before your
conscience self knows, the
decision you are going to
make will 100% accuaracy.
6.4 Sam Harris
6.4.1 Free will is an illusion.
6.4.2 He gave an example to pick any city in the
world and a few names pop into your head -
who chooses what cities come into your
126.96.36.199 There must be 50+ names of
cities in your head but why
did you only think of a few?
6.4.3 "Thoughts just emerge in
consciousness, we are not
6.4.4 "Conscious witness of your inner life".
6.5 Loeb and Leopald murdered a 14 year old boy
so that they could 'commit the perfect crime'.
Their lawyer argued that it wasn't fair to hang
them by arguing that they grew up in an ear of
war with no "value of human life".
6.5.1 We don't have free will
because the choices we
make are heavily
influenced by our society
and thing happening
6.5.2 "All life is worth saving, and that
mercy is the highest attribute of
6.6 Ted Honderich argued that all human
action is casually determined, therefore
we can never act freely and can't be
held morally responsible for our
6.6.1 Denies we have any choice,
therefore we have no moral
6.6.2 Everything is
6.6.3 "The very idea of free will is meaningless".
6.7 Jean-Paul illustrates a kind of libertarianism, he argues that because
humans are able to self-reflect, they can be genuinely creative with
respect to their character. There is a radical gulf between a person
and his past, such that a person must continually re-create
themselves. People are so free that it scares them and so they make
up stories about being determined.
7.1.1 Morality can be
us to predict
and traits that a
7.1.2 Many geneticists
struggle to support hard
solely on genetics, the
environment plays an
important part on
7.1.3 When we are able to
fully understand the
genetics, we might
be to compute a
person's actions; if
we could predict how
a person is going to
react, it proves that
free will is an
7.2.1 The effect of
the brain play a
vital part in
what people do
and what their
attitudes will be
7.2.2 For example, if
half of the brain is
starved of oxygen,
one half becomes
aggressive and the
therefore the very
nature of the
7.3 Social Conditioning
7.3.1 We learn moral
behaviours from our
life, culture - these
shape our lives and
give us moral
7.3.2 Stamford Uni Prison
Experiment was used to
prove that moral
behaviour can change
with social conditioning.
7.4.1 Brayn Caplan argues that
hard determinism is based on
188.8.131.52 1. The genetic make up of the individual.
184.108.40.206 2. Shared family environment.
220.127.116.11 3. Non-shared environment.
7.4.2 Scientists say that we are influenced
40% by genes, 50% non-shared
environment and 10% family
7.4.3 Caplan agrues that we are determined
and the 'non-shared environment' is