PL3236 intro

Mind Map by Wanx, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Wanx about 5 years ago



Resource summary

PL3236 intro


  •   Prevalence –
 the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time Prevalence is typically expressed as percentages Different types of prevalence estimates include point prevalence, one-year prevalence, and lifetime prevalence    
  • Epidemiology –
 the study of the distribution of diseases, disorders, or health- related behaviors in a given population    
  • Incidence –
 the number of new cases in a population over a given period of time Incidence figures are typically lower than prevalence figures, because they exclude already existing cases    
1 Psychopathology - the field concerned with the nature, development & treatment of mental disorders
1.1.1 Demonology - the doctrine that an evil spirit or being can dwell within a person and control their mind/body led to exorcism - the ritualistic casting out of spirits
1.1.2 Early Biological explanations - Hippocrates mental disorders into 3 categories; mania, melancholia & phrenitis/brain fever believed 4 fluids - blood(change temperament) , black bile(melancholia), yellow bile(irritability&anxiousness), phlegm(sluggish&dull)
1.1.3 Dark Ages & Demonology Church took control, Witchcraft, lunacy trials
1.1.4 Development of Asylums Bethelem, Benjamin Rush, Pinel's reforms, Pussin, moral treatment Dorothea Dix, overcrowding, understaffed
1.1.5 Biological approaches syphilis - steady declination of mental&physical abilities,progressive paralysis-->general paresis Louis Pasteur - germ theory of disease - caused by infection of body by minute organisms Genetics - Francis Galton - nature & nurture + eugenics Sakel - insulin-coma therapy, gradually abandoned electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), Cerletti & Bini used for scizophrenia & severe depression prefrontal lobotomy, Moniz destroys tracts connecting frontal lobes to other parts of the brain results in brain damage Mesmer, hysteria, magnetic fluid distribution, hypnosis Charcot, hysteria's psychological explanations Breuer - cathartic method, relieving emotional trauma,tension Freud & psychoanalysis id (libido,pleasure principle, unconscious), ego (reality principle), superego (conscience, values) Defense mechanisms (used by ego to protect itself from anxiety) Repression Keeping unacceptable impulses/wishes from conscious awareness Denial Projection Displacement Reaction formation Regression Rationalization Sublimation Intellectualization Identification Techniques Free association say anything Intepretation uses defense mechanisms mainly Analysis of transference patient's responses to analyst similarly to other impt figures psychosexual development stages 1. oral stage (0 to 18mths) - sucking, feeding, biting - lips,mouths,gums,tongue 2. anal stage (18 to 3 yrs old) - passing & retaining feces - anus 3. phallic stage (3 to 6 yrs old) - genital stimulation latency period (6 to 12 yrs old) 4. genital stage - heterosexual interests dominate if conflicts not resolved - fixation. Jung & Analytical psychology personal unconsciousness, collective unconsciousness (common to all humans) extraversion, introversion Alfred & individual psychology people tied to their society as fulfilment found by doing things for social good believe thinking rationally leads to feeling & behaving better Childhood experiences shape adult personality There are unconscious influences on behavior. The causes & purposes of human behavior are not always obvious
1.1.6 Behaviorism (observable behavior) Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov UCS, UCR, CS, CR, extinction stimulus,response Operant conditioning (Edward Thorndike) effects of consequences on behavior law of effect - behavior rewarded will be repeated, vice versa B.F. Skinner - reinforcements Positive reinforcement: presence of something strengthens tendency to repeat behavior Negative reinforcement: absence of something strengthens tendency to repeat behavior Modeling Bandura, Menlove - reduce fear in dogs of children behavior therapy attempt to change behavior, thoughts & feelings by applying methods used in clinical context systematic desensitization (Wolpe) 1. deep muscle relaxation, 2. gradual exposure to list of fears intermittent reinforcement (rewarding it only some times)
1.1.7 Cognitive therapy Aaron Beck Ellis's rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) sustained emotional reactions due to internal sentences repeated to themselves reflect unspoken assumptions eliminates self-defeating beliefs
2 Stigma - destructive beliefs & attitudes held by a society ascribed to groups considered different in some manner
2.1 4 Characteristics of Stigma
2.1.1 1. Label is applied to people who are different, distinguishing them from others 2. Label is linked to undesirable attributes by society 3. People with the label are seen as different, creating "us VS them" mentality 4. Discrimination against the labelled occurs
2.2 Fighting against stigma; strategies
2.2.1 Insurance coverage, policies & laws
2.2.2 Employment, decriminalization
2.2.3 Housing, personal contact, education
2.2.4 support&advocacy groups, mental health evaluations, edu+training
3 Defining Mental Disorder
3.1 Difficult but fundamental to do so.
3.2 occurs within the individual.
3.2.1 personal distress or disorder not culturally specific to events not primarily due to social dev.
3.3 Key characteristics
3.3.1 Personal distress
3.3.2 Disability
3.3.3 Violation of social norms (deviance)
3.3.4 Dysfunction
3.4 APA Definition : A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or a pattern that occurs in an individual and is associated with present distress (e.g. a painful symptom) or disability (i.e. impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death pain, disability or an important loss of freedom. In addition, this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one. Whatever its original cause, it must currently be considered a manifestation of a behavioural, psychological or biological dysfunction in the individual.
4 Mental Health Profession
4.1 Clinical psychologists must have a PHD or psy.d ~ 4-8 yrs of graduate study
4.1.1 learn techniques of assessment & diagnosis of psychopathology, +psychotherapy
4.2 Psychiatrists (hold M.D. degree)
4.3 Social workers (Master of SW)
4.4 Counseling psychologists
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