nucleophillic substitution

Pia Ricioppo
Mind Map by Pia Ricioppo, updated more than 1 year ago
Pia Ricioppo
Created by Pia Ricioppo about 5 years ago


aqa as level chemistry unit 2

Resource summary

nucleophillic substitution
1 theory
1.1 as halogens have a greater electronegativity than crabon the c-halogen bond becomes POLAR so on one end its delta positive (electron defiencent) and on the other its delta negative (electron rich)
2 nucleophiles
2.1 they are electron pair donors (want to give away the electrons)
2.2 possess atleast one lone pair of electrons
2.3 doesnt have to possess a negative charge
2.4 attracted to slightly postive carbons.
3 key examples
3.1 hydroxide ion;
3.1.1 produces alchols
3.1.2 the reagent is aqueous sodium (potassium) hydroxide
3.1.3 conditions reflux.
3.2 cynaide
3.2.1 the reagent is aqueous potassium or sodium cynaide
3.2.2 the condition is refulx aq.
3.2.3 the product is a nitrile
3.3 ammonia
3.3.1 the reagent is aqueous ammonia
3.3.2 the conditions are aq (sealed tube)
4 defonitions
4.1 nucleophile; an electron pair donor
4.2 substitution; replacement of halogen with carbon
4.3 hydrolysis; splitting up a molecule using water.
5 key points;
5.1 nucleophiles have a one pair of electrons
5.1.1 carbons restricted to 8 electrons in outershell the bond must be disremoved or broke if more are bonded.
5.1.2 c-halogen bond breaks heterolytically
5.1.3 second curly arrow shows shared pair of electrons moving onto halogen
5.2 the carbon halogen bond polar.
5.3 the curly arrows drawn from from lone pair to carbon
5.3.1 halogen has its own electrons aswell as carbon electrons and becomes a charged hallide.
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