Atoms and Reactions

siobhan.quirk
Flashcards by , created over 6 years ago

Undergraduate Chemistry - Part 1 (Atoms and Reactions) Flashcards on Atoms and Reactions, created by siobhan.quirk on 05/11/2013.

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siobhan.quirk
Created by siobhan.quirk over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Define amount of substance the quantity whose unit is the mole.
Define the Avogadro constant the number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope
Define mole the amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope.
Define molar mass the mass per mole of a substance. The units of molar mass are g mol-1
Define empirical formula the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in each element in a compound
Define molecule a small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Define molecular formula the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
Define molar volume the volume per mole of a gas. The units of molar volume are dm3mol-1. At RTP the molar volume is approx 24.0dm3mol-1
Define concentration the amount of solute, in mol, dissolved per 1dm3 of solution
Define standard solution a solution of known concentration. Normally used to determine unknown information about another substance
Define species any type of particle that takes place in a chemical reaction
Define stoichiometry molar relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction
Define acid a species that is a proton donor
Define base a species that is a proton acceptor
Define alkalis a type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions
Define salt a chemical compound formed from an acid when a H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion
Define cation positively charged ion
Define anion negatively charged ion
Define hydrated a crystalline compound containing water molecules
Define anhydrous a substance that contains no water molecules
Define water of crystallisation water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound
Define oxidation number a measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with other atoms of another element
Define oxidation the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number
Define reduction the gain of electrons or decrease in oxidation number
Define redox reaction a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation take place
Define reducing agent is a reagent that reduces another species
Define oxidising agent a reagent that oxidises another species
Define isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Define atomic (proton) number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Define mass (nucleon) number the number of protons and neutrons in the nuclesus
Define ion a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms
Define isotopic mass the mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Define relative atomic mass the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Define relative molecular mass the weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Define relative formula mass the weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12