cell structure

div0002
Mind Map by , created about 6 years ago

A level Biology Mind Map on cell structure, created by div0002 on 09/06/2013.

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div0002
Created by div0002 about 6 years ago
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cell structure
1 microscopy

Annotations:

  • light and electron microscope ; used to see cells structure  in higher resolutions
2 functions of membranes and organelles
2.1 plasma membrane

Annotations:

  • also known as cell membrane surface. It controls what enters and leaves the cell
2.2 nucleus

Annotations:

  • it is enveloped by two nuclear membrane. Contains chromosomes 
2.3 nucleolus

Annotations:

  • new ribosomes are made there 
2.4 ribosomes

Annotations:

  • structures made of RNA and protein. found in cytoplasm & attached to RER
2.4.1 rough endoplasmic reticulum

Annotations:

  • Involve in protein synthesis and linking the amino acids. Moves amino acid chains from  cisternae of RER  to golgi apparatus.
  • the cisternae breaks off to form vesicles containing the amino acids
2.4.2 smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Annotations:

  • Involve in synthesis of steroid hormones  and breakdown of toxins
2.5 Golgi apparatus

Annotations:

  • Here the amino acids are modified, for e.g adding a carbonyl group to the them. 
  • they break off  from GA to cell membrane by exocytosis.
2.6 Mitochondrion

Annotations:

  • mitochondria in plural, here also the mitochondria has 2 envelops surrounding them.
  • they are responsible for aerobic respiration, aka ATP production. Krebs cycle occur in matrix  and oxidative phosphorylation stage occurs on membranes of the cristae. 
2.7 Lysosomes

Annotations:

  • function: digest bacteria, unwanted or damaged organelles or other cells taken by phagocytosis within the lysosome.
  • they are little membrane-bound package of hydrolytic enzymes, aka digestive.
2.8 centrioles

Annotations:

  • found in animal cells; not in plant cells
  • They are made of tiny tubules called microtubules and they form spindle fiber during cell division, in animals cells
3 prokaryotic cells

Annotations:

  • made up of
  • DNa lies naked in the plasma; bacteria contains small plasmids made up of Dna, never associated with histone
  • Contains only ribosomes, about 18 nm, and cell wall made up of  peptidoglycans
3.1 bacteria
3.2 archaea
4 eukaryotic cells

Annotations:

  • They have nucleus and nuclear envelop. They are larger than prokaryotic cells
4.1 animals
4.2 plants
4.2.1 chloroplasts

Annotations:

  • found only in some plants. Same nuclear envelop as mitochondria
4.2.1.1 stroma

Annotations:

  • contains many paired based membranes thylakoids
4.2.1.1.1 thylakoids

Annotations:

  • forms stacks called grana
4.2.1.1.1.1 grana

Annotations:

  • the grana contains chlorophyll 
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 chlorophyll
4.3 protista
4.4 fungi

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