Higher-Order Thinking, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking

John Marttila
Mind Map by John Marttila, updated more than 1 year ago
John Marttila
Created by John Marttila about 5 years ago


Mindmap of Chapter 12 Brookhart, Susan M.; Nitko, Anthony J. (2014-01-27). Educational Assessment of Students (7th Edition). Pearson. Kindle Edition.

Resource summary

Higher-Order Thinking, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking
1 Assessing Higher Order Thinking Skills
1.1 Use tasks that require use of knowledge and skill in new or novel situations
1.2 Use novel material to assess higher order thinking
1.3 Context-Dependent Item Sets (-A.K.A. Interpretive Exercises)
1.3.1 Introductory material followed by items Reading excerpts, pictures, graphs, drawings, paragraphs, poems, formulas, tables of numbers, lists of words or symbols, specimens, maps, films, sound recordings
1.3.2 Advantages relatively close to the real-world contexts provides the same context for all students lessens the burden of memorizing may moderate the effects of prior experience only means to test certain intellectual abilities
1.3.3 Disadvantages difficult to construct sets intro material must be carefully created performance on one item set may not generalize well the set often requires students to use additional abilities beyond the assessment task focus may need special facilities/equipment
1.3.4 Layout poor arrangement may cause students to misread or misinterpret Use side heading and directions to point students to the introductory material & tasks center introductory material items below introductory material introductory material and items on the same page
1.3.5 Ability to use Reference Materials Reference-using skills alphabetizing, using tables of contents and indexes, using encyclopedias, using dictionaries, using general reference materials (calendars, maps and globes, textbooks, periodical indexes, atlases, and so on), using library services, using the Internet and computer-based CDs Interpretive materials section of an index, a section of a table of contents, a part of an atlas, a picture of a computer screen
1.3.6 Graphs and Tables comprehending the topic recognizing what is shown by each part reading amounts comparing two or more values interpreting relationships, trends, & main points
1.3.7 Maps orienting maps, determining direction, locating and/or describing places on maps and globes, determining distances, tracing routes of travel, and interpreting time zones, landscapes, features
2 Concept Learning
2.1 What are concepts?
2.1.1 concept is a class or category of similar things (objects, people, events, or relations)
2.1.2 forms the basis for their higher-order learning
2.1.3 instances, examples, or exemplars are individual members of the concept category
2.1.4 concrete concept class has one or more common physical, tangible qualities that can be heard, seen, tasted, felt, or smelled IE: large, triangle, green, house, dog
2.1.5 defined concept classdefined concept class can be defined in the same way by attributes that are not tangible often relationships among other concepts sometimes called abstract or relational concepts usually learned by definitions IE: diagonal,beside, friendliness, uncle, mother
2.2 Some concepts are learned initially as concrete concepts and later as defined concepts
2.3 Understanding isn't just showing examples. Understanding is showing how concepts are related to each other and linked together in complex ways through schemata or networks
2.3.1 schema is the way knowledge is represented in our minds connected concepts, information, rules, problem-solving strategies, conditions for actions
2.4 Assessment Strategies
2.4.1 Give the Name Over generalizations are not caught
2.4.2 discriminating examples from nonexamples doesn't require concept name allows teacher control of assessment situation doesn't assess deeper understanding
2.4.3 producing their own examples students to think up examples useful for assessing simple (not complex) concepts
2.4.4 using the concept in performance assessment Demonstrates deeper understanding Complex assessment with concept application use the concept to solve problems; relate the concept to other concepts principles and generalizations; use the concept to learn new material
2.4.5 Defined Concept Learning weaker strategies (may not be suitable for younger students) produce a definition produce new concept exemplars stronger strategies discriminate exemplars from nonexemplars identify components and demonstrate relationships
3 Assessing Rules & Principles Comprehension
3.1 Strategies for assessment
3.1.1 produce or identify consequences
3.1.2 produce consequences & explain why
3.1.3 produce an explanation only
3.1.4 draw a conclusion based on application of the principle
3.2 Difficult to interpret, so questions you have to answer about the students’ responses to evaluate them properly
3.2.1 Are the students’ examples new, or were they presented in the class or in the assigned materials?
3.2.2 Why can’t students give good examples?
3.2.3 Do they understand the principle?
3.2.4 Is there weak content specific knowledge being used to apply the principle?
4 Problem Solving
4.1 Nature of Problem Solving
4.1.1 Requires use of higher-order "problem solving" processes
4.1.2 “No-brainers” are NOT problem solving
4.2 Well Structured
4.2.1 Most textbook questions/exercises
4.2.2 Clearly laid out
4.2.3 Give students opportunities to rehearse procedures or algorithms
4.2.4 Not authentic/real life
4.3 Ill-Structured
4.3.1 students organize the information
4.3.2 More Authentic/real life
4.3.3 students clarify the problem
4.3.4 students obtain the information
4.3.5 students recognize there may be multiple correct answers
4.4 General vs. Specific Problem Solving
4.4.1 General Strategies apply across subject areas but in less powerful ways Used when operating outside of a comfort/expertise zone
4.4.2 Specific Strategies apply strongly to specific content areas but not across subject areas Used by people who are more expert/comfortable with the subject
4.5 10 step heuristic for Solving Problems
4.5.1 see the whole picture, not just details withhold judgment; do not rush to a solution create a model of the problem pictures, sketches, diagrams, graphs, equations, or symbols try different models if the first doesn't help state the problem as a question try different questions if the first doesn't work think outside of the box work backward keep track of partial solutions use analogies to compare the problem to others talk around and through it in many ways until you find a solution
4.6 IDEAL problem solver
4.6.1 Identify the problem Define & represent the problem Explore possible strategies Act on strategies Look back and evaluate the effects of your activities
5 Critical Thinking
5.1 Assessing critical thinking
5.1.1 checklists can help keep track of students' uses of critical thinking skills
5.1.2 Rating scales help record teacher judgment of the quality of critical thinking
5.2 Advanced clarification
5.2.1 Interact with others
5.3 “ Critical thinking is a process, the goal of which is to make reasonable decisions about what to believe and what to do” ( Ennis, 1996 , p. xvii)
5.3.1 Reasonable thinking
5.3.2 Reflective thinking
5.3.3 Focused thinking
5.3.4 Deciding what to believe or do
5.3.5 Abilities and dispositions
5.4 5 areas of critical thinking abilities
5.4.1 Elementary Clarification Basic Support InferenceInference Advanced clarification Strategies & tactics Decide on an action Interact with others Define terms & judge definitions Identify assumptions Make & evaluate deductions inductions judgments Judge the credibility of a source Make & judge observations Focus on a question Analyze arguments Ask & answer questions that clarify and challenge
6 Reading Skills
6.1 Traditional procedure
6.1.1 Read-->answer questions
6.1.2 Locate possible passages Write initial test items Rewrite the passage to focus on targets Consider rewriting some of the items Repeat rewriting as necessary
6.2 Authentic reading assessment
6.2.1 Reading comprehension is focus
6.2.2 Longer passages from primary sources
6.2.3 Can be combined with writing & experimenting etc.
6.3 MAZE item type
6.3.1 Embed multiple-choice questions to check for comprehension Design so students need to read and understand the passage Information required for a correct answer should all be in the passage All of the items’ options should be common words
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