1 Distinguish between negative freedom and positive freedom? (15)
1.1 Classical liberals believe in Negative freedom - The
absence of external restrictions to an individual, allowing
freedom of choice. e.g, the legalization of marowajana in
the UK is a goal that the liberal democrats have aimed to
have if they get into power.
1.1.1 Modern liberals believe in positive freedom -
Individuals being their own master through
autonomy - Allowing freedom of choice, but as
long as it doesn't harm themselves or others -
they're protected with interventions, such as
the NHS who could provide a 'smoke free kit'
to indivdual's that wanted to quit smoking.
188.8.131.52 Enabling state - a state with lots of interventions to
protect individuals from harming themselves or others.
This relates to the idea of welfarism. This is seen as
helping society to function. E.g, drug laws, preventing
people from taking substances, such as heroin and
cocaine, which harms an individual, also drug rehab
programme's are in place to help individuals get off the
substances, complying with positive freedom.
1.1.2 Minimal state - A state with minimum amounts of laws and
interventions, to maximize individuals freedom in society,
this links in with the belief of negative freedom. For
example, allowing people to have the rights to euthanasia,
as they do in Holland. Hollands view forcing someone to live
against an individuals liberties because they have no control
over their lives, a life of pain and misery is harmful to an
individual. Allowing an individual to end their own life and
their suffering and doesn't cause any physical harm to
2 Distinguish between economic liberalism and social liberalism (15)
2.1 Economic liberalism - Humans are rational
creatures that debate about the role of the
government within civil society. Mercantilism- a
school thought that emphasizes the state's role in
managing international trades and delivery
prosperity. This was in order to encourage goods
and restrict exports.
2.2 (drawn on the idea of Utillitarianism) Adam Smith -'The Wealth of Nations' - Dissagrees with mercantilism. He says the ecomony works
best when left alone 'laissez faire'. Economic market should be free from government. The ecomony is a series of inter-lated markets. The
markets operate according to the wishes of individuals. -Freedom of choice - to make what they want. - Freedom to choose an employer.
-Freedom of choice for consumers to buy what they want. To be happy we are self-interested to require wealth. We can make a
comparison to the American dream. Producer can't set the prices, it will be set by the market. Self regulating - the market decides the
price. 'the economy is managed by an invisable hand'.
2.2.1 Freedom of choice for individuals
2.3 Social Darwinism- Attiudes to poverty and social equality. Evolution- all
animals evolved to adapt to the enviroment. The strong will survive and
the weak will fall (natural selection). This focuses on the idea of the
survival of the fittest. Spencer- Used Darwins theory to develop the social
idea 'the survival of the fittest' The idea that people who are best suited
to survive will rise to the top. Those people that are not will fall to the
bottom. He is suggesting that inequality's in wealth - it is inevitable. 'the
drunk in the gutter is just where he ought to be.' This sums up Spencer
putting forwards the idea that the government shouldn't interfere. A
famous example of social darwinism would be Adulf Hitlers book 'mein
camp' - His idea was he wanted to produce the fittest human race.
2.3.1 Spencer said people have no choice in life chances.
2.4 Both make the point of non-interferance by the government.
3 Liberalism is defined by the desire to minimise the role of the state,' Discuss (45)
3.1 enabling state - a state with lots of laws
and interventions to protect the harming
themselves and others - Positive freedom
-the liberty to act on ones wishes and to act
on whatever the individual chooses to do,
as long as it doesn’t harm themselves or
others, and then interventions will be
enforced. For example, if someone was to
get addicted to want to quit smoking, the
NHS would give them a ‘smoke quitting kit’.
3.1.1 Modern liberalism - it was developed from the idea of capitalism and the industrialization; it had
brought expansion of wealth for some, social equality rose with an increase of the working class earning
low wages. This influenced them to create a more enabling state. People are unique human beings who
and so some may have inequalities that lead to success easier than others. Therefore this will lead to
inequality that lead to success more than others. They realised that there could be a situation where
egosism and self-interest could lead to rivalry and self conflict. So in realism terms there will always be a
gap between rich and poor.
184.108.40.206 Individualism -
220.127.116.11 Positive freedom - Individuals have a self
rearlisation and that they can develop their
own skills and talents to achivieve their own
skills and human compasitory. For example, if
someome was to get addictied to smoking and
wanted to quit smoking, the NHS would give
them a 'smoke quiting kit.'
18.104.22.168 Justice - Recognise that all human beings are identical should be treated int he
same way and there should be a fair distribution of wealth in society. For
example, if we are to have social justice there should be a fair distribution of
matieral rewards and benefits in society, such as housing, medical care,
welfare benefits. They believe that each individual should have the chance to
rise in society and this leads to a belief in meritocracy - people being rewarded
for talent and hard work, such as earning good grades at school to go to
university to become a doctor, being given well paid and high social status
saleries. They would therefore believe in social and economic liberalism in
order to promote personal development. John Rawls,' Economic inner quality
is only justicifiable if it works to the bestest in society. Liberals do recognise
that for individauls to have freedom, this may lead to the exploitation of
others and the theft of other peoples property and even maybe
22.214.171.124.1 salvery. Liberals do beleive that humans need to be protected from this and that
protection can only be provided by the state, which can restrain individuals, if
necessary. John Locke said,' where there is no law, there is no freedom,' this
connotes that where other people can take your stuff, that is not considered a
free society. Lockes looks back at life before there was a government and he
says,'where individuals are selfish and greedy and power seeking, society would
just become an un-ending civil war, where hunman life would be short.
3.1.2 Freedom - positive freedom.
3.2 Classic liberalism - A developed form of feudalism - capitalism in the 17 century, as to gain equality.
Formed in the 19th century, focusing around the industrial revolution. Focuses on eguistical liberalism.
They view humans as rational self-interested creatures and self-reliant. This implies they believe in an atomistic society
as they think human beings are self-suficient and should be left alone or laisez faire. Therefore, they
believe in an negative freedom - the idea that the individual should be left alone to do what they please
connecting with the belief they are self sufficient. This means the absense of external contraints. For
example, allowing people to have the right to euthanasia, as they do in Holland. Holland view forcing
someone to live is against an individual’s liberties because they have no control over their lives, such as
if they were suffering and being forced to live, a life of pain and misery is harmful to the individual.
3.2.1 Minimal state - A state with little laws and preventions. Lockes methaphor - as a
,'nightwatchman, illustrating the state is for to maintain demestic order in society,
enforce the contracts and protect society against external attack.
3.2.2 Allowing the individual to end their life ends their suffering and doesn’t cause any
physical harm to others.
3.2.3 Individualism - Un-contrained individual actions.
Any political policy made should have the
individual at the centred around it.
3.2.4 Freedom - negative freedom. Individuals should have
complete freedom. Mill,' We should support negative
freedom and allow complete freedom of choice. ,'the only
purpose for which power can be rightfully excersized over
any memeber of a civilized community against his will, is to
prevent harm to others.
3.2.5 Justice- Political power should be given to the people -
4 Explain between liberalism and constitutionalism (15)
4.1 Constitutionalism- Having control over Government -
Wanting to protect peoples liberty by having external and
internal checks on government power. This a type of
political liberalism. They may have separation of powers.
Might also a bill of rights. Decentralisation, when power is
taken away from central government. It is about avoiding
dictatorship. Devolution - the transfer of power from
central government to regional groups - Scotland.