Coastal Landscapes

James Disley
Mind Map by James Disley, updated more than 1 year ago
James Disley
Created by James Disley about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Coastal Landscapes, created by James Disley on 02/15/2015.

Resource summary

Coastal Landscapes
1 Types of wave
1.1 Waves form due to the transfer of energy and the action of the wind.
1.1.1 3 factors affect the energy:
1.1.1.1 1 The distance the wind has been blowing.
1.1.1.2 2 The speed the wind is travelling.
1.1.1.3 The length of time the wind has been blowing.
1.2 Destructive waves
1.2.1 Have high energy
1.2.2 Large fetch
1.2.3 Strong backwash, weak swash
1.2.4 responsible for erosion.
1.3 Constructive waves
1.3.1 Have low energy
1.3.2 Weak backwash, Strong Swash
1.3.3 Responsible for deposition
2 Coastal Processes and landforms
2.1 Erosions and weathering
2.1.1 Wears away the rock.
2.1.2 Erosional process Abrasion (pebbles hit the cliff wearing it away), Corrosion (the dissolving of the rock), Hydraulic action (waves hit cliffs forcing air into cracks, breaking the rock), Attrition (pebbles becoming rounder.
2.2 Mass movement large sections of the cliff collapse due to weathering.
2.2.1 Slumping and rockfall
2.3 Wave cut platform (areas of flat rock at the bases created by erosion.
3 Erosional coastal landforms
3.1 Headlands and bays
3.1.1 Mixture of soft and hard rock the sort rock erodes fastter creating your bay leaving your hard rock creating a headland.
3.2 Caves, arches, stacks and stumps.
4 Deposition landforms
4.1 Longshore drift
4.1.1 Breach sediment transported along the coast line by waves.
4.2 Beaches
4.2.1 Waves lose engr. deposited sediment forming beaches.
4.3 Spit
4.3.1 Extended beach that projects out to sea.
4.4 Bar
4.4.1 A extended beach that connects two headlands.
5 Factors effecting cliff recision
5.1 Fetch
5.2 Geology
5.3 Coastal management
6 Coastal flooding
6.1 Causes
6.1.1 High tide
6.1.2 Storm surges
6.1.3 Sea level rising
6.2 Reducing impact
6.2.1 Prediction
6.2.1.1 The environmental agency monitor sea conditions
6.2.2 Prevention
6.2.2.1 Barriers, flood plains and flood walls
6.2.3 Planing
6.2.3.1 Early warning system
6.2.3.2 Advice
7 Coastal defences
7.1 Hard engeneering
7.1.1 Sea wall (Protects buildings costs £5000perM)
7.1.2 Groynes (stops longshore drift affects other coastlines)
7.1.3 Riprap (rocks absorb wave energy relatively cheap)
7.2 Soft engineering
7.2.1 Beach replenishment (reduces wave energy and cheap)
7.2.2 Cliff regrading (reduces slippage, foot of cliff needs protecting still.
8 Case study
8.1 Swanage bay and Durlston bay
8.1.1 Made up of hard and soft rock.
8.1.2 Protection
8.1.2.1 Recently spent 2.2m
8.1.2.2 Swanage bay has a sea wall, groynes, cliff re-grading and beach replenishment.
8.1.2.3 Durlston Bay has Riprap, cliff drainage and cliff re-grading
9 Case study
9.1 The Cornish Coastline
9.1.1 Widemouth has Rip rap
9.1.2 Port Gwidden has Gabions
9.1.3 Mosehole has seawalls
9.1.4 Carlyon bay they have beach replenishment
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