Causes of Cuban Missile Crisis (HISTORY GCSE)

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Mind Map by jordanjbaker, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mind Map on Causes of Cuban Missile Crisis (HISTORY GCSE), created by jordanjbaker on 02/15/2015.

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Causes of Cuban Missile Crisis (HISTORY GCSE)
1 The location of Cuba-only 160 km from the coast of Florida-gave it great strategic importance.
2 When Castro came to power in 1959, he started to Nationalise all foreign-owned land, property and oil refineries. In January 1960 he made an alliance with USSR, who promised to buy Cuba's sugar (previously sold to USA). USA did not like this arrangement, so in October 1960, they stopped all trade with Cuba.
3 Bay of pigs, 1961
3.1 1. John F. Kennedy became president in Jan' 11961. In the early days of presidency, he was persuaded by CIA that Fidel Castro could be overthrown by supports of former Cuban ruler, Batista.
3.2 2. The rebels, backed by the Americans, landed at the bay of Pigs, on Cuba's south coast, In April 1961. The attack was a total disaster. The rebels received no local support and were defeated in a few days. Kennedy was severely embarrassed. He realised that he had been wrongly advised.
4 In 1961 Castro publicly declared himself a communist. This declaration convinced the USA that Cuba was now a satellite state of USSR. Meanwhile the USA launched "Operation Mongoose", a plan to replace Castro as ruler of Cuba by Oct' 1962. Cuba now had to depend on USSR for military protection. June 1962 Castro to receive huge shipments of Soviet arms, aircraft, gun boat and ground-to-air missiles.
5 In September 1962, medium-range offensive nuclear missiles and bomber planes arrived in Cuba. USA new about these weapons, but the Soviets insisted they were defensive. 14th October 1962, U-2 planes photographed Soviet missiles in place on launch pads in Cuba. the photographs proved Soviets lied. The missiles had a range of 4000 km, therefore, most large American cities were within their range of attack. More ships carrying missiles were reported to be on the way from USSR to Cuba.
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