American History - Kennedy - Quiz

Courtney Ward
Flashcards by , created almost 2 years ago

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Courtney Ward
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Question Answer
How close was Kennedy's victory against Nixon in 1960? Very close! One of the closest in history: JFK: 49.9% Nixon: 49.6%
How did television help Kennedy's win? Nixon came across badly; he was tired & recovering from an operation, whilst suffering the flu JFK fresh & well prepared For those watching JFK clear winner - for those listening Nixon won (more had been watching)
What type of President did Kennedy see himself as? A Foreign Policy President
What did Kennedy make his domestic priority? Economic Growth He saw it as essential for America to strengthen its position in the world
What did Kennedy believe would get the economy moving? Tax Cuts
Why did it take him so long to put forward legislation for this? Faced resistance from his own party on the topic - he knew a bill would fail making him look weak He waited til 1963 for his $10b tax cut was put to Congress
This bill was passed after his assassination. How do many historians & economists view this bill? Many view it as the basis of the economic success for the rest of the 1960s
What did the Revenue Act do? Cut taxes for business, which gave $1b in tax credits for new equipment & investment
How did Kennedy's foreign policy impact on the domestic American economy? Increased spending on defense & NASA helped encourage prosperity at home Major factor in the sustained economic growth 1960s
What did Kennedy promise to do by 1969? What steps did he take to achieve this? To put a man on the moon Doubled the NASA budget
What helped reduce unemployment to 5.3% by the start of 1964? States were encouraged to apply for, and then spend, federal grants for housing, schools, highways etc. He didn't allocate new money but instead encouraged federal & state authorities to spend what they could to create employment
What brought Kennedy into conflict with the US Steel? He asked for price and wage rises to be in line with increased productivity Steel industry had a 3% rise in productivity & workers accepted a 2.5% wage increase US Steel then increased its prices & other companies followed suit
Why did this cause problems? Steel was vital to the car and defence industries, this would lead to higher inflation
How did Kennedy respond? He threatened an FBI investigation & the denial of government contracts He also put pressure on other steel companies not to increase prices
How did this issue with US Steel end? Faced with a tremendous amount of pressure, US Steel backed down & inflation stayed below 1.3%
What did the 1962 Manpower Development and Training Act do? Provided $435 million for school and job-based training 200,000 people went through these schemes
What act gave grants and loans for training, development and community facilities? 1961 Area Redevelopment Act
What was a negative and a positive for the 1963 Equal Pay Act? - Did not cover all women & there were no powers of enforcement + 171,000 women benefited & it passed with little opposition
Kennedy was the first President to tackle which particular issue that is huge today? Environment Clean Air Act 1963 - limited pollution from cars & factories
Why was Kennedy slow to act on Civil Rights? 1. Victory in election narrow 2. Opinion polls showed Americans favoured gradual approach 3. Polls showed Civil Rights at bottom of list of voter concerns 4. He needed Dixiecrat support
What did the EEOC aim to do & how successful was it in achieving this? Aimed to ensure fair employment for federal employees It succeeded in promoting greater equality at an aircraft plant but otherwise met with limited successs
How did the Justice Department help with civil rights under Kennedy? They believed that legal challenges were the way to improve civil rights Brought 57 suits against obstructions to Black voting (only 6 under Ike) They helped speed up desegregation in New Orleans, Atlanta, Memphis
How did Kennedy and American's react to the Freedom Rides of 1961? 63% of Americans opposed them JFK reluctant to act against the mobs that attacked the protesters - he feared upset from Dixiecrats whilst felt that the rides were unpatriotic as they publicised domestic issues to the rest of the world (USSR)
How did Kennedy help integrate universities in Alabama in 1963? Alabama was the last state to start desegregating its universities Kennedy sent in National Guard Kennedy declared black inequality immoral, referenced the Bible & constitution
How did Kennedy react to the March on Washington 1963? Was opposed - saw it as criticism of his civil rights record Feared it'd antagonise Congress - jeopardise Civil Rights bill Eventually endorsed the march
What sort of critique did Kennedy gain for his involvement in the March on Washington? Some argued he had taken over the March Malcolm X called it the 'farce on Washington'
Who was Dean Rusk & Robert McNamara? Kennedy's Secretary of State Kennedy's Defence Secretary
How much was the defence budget increased in 1961? By 15%
How much did ICBMs increase between 1961 to 1963? 1961 - 63 1963 - 424
What was the Peace Corps? Established in 1961 Young people volunteered to work in poor areas of the world Aim was that LEDCs would be deterred from looking for Communist aid
What was the 'Brain Drain'? 4,000 people a day were using it as an escape route from East to West These were often skilled & educated workers Caused economic problems for East
How did Khrushchev try an solve this issue? Met with Kennedy in Vienna - June 1961 JFK refused to end free movement Khrushchev raised the same ultimatum he gave Ike - Kennedy stood firm Berlin Wall was created
What were the main consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis? Closest the world had been to WWIII Both sides realised relations needed improvement = Detente period 'Hotline' between Washington & Moscow Nuclear Test Ban Treaty - USSR, USA, UK - future testing underground to stop fallout
What was the issue with Laos under Kennedy? After the Geneva Accords, North hadn't fully withdrawn from Laos JFK had to be cautious - feared Chinese provocation The North never did withdraw & so this had a major impact for later; the key Ho Chi Minh trail remained open
Why was the Ho Chi Minh trail so important? It was the main supply route from North to South Vietnam Its continued effectiveness was a key reason why America was never able to win the conflict