A-Level Ethics Mind Map on Utilitarianism , created by abbey.turton6970 on 02/19/2015.
Mind Map by abbey.turton6970, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by abbey.turton6970 over 8 years ago

Resource summary

  1. Betham's utilitarianism
    1. Theory of Motivation
      1. "Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters pleasure and pain"
        1. "It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do as well as to determine what we shall do"
          1. Bentham believed that human beings are motivated by pleasure and pain.
            1. Bentham believed that pleasure is the ultimate motivator.
              1. All humans pursue pleasure and seek to avoid pain. Pleasure is the sole good and pain is the sole evil
              2. The hedonic calculus
                1. The hedonic calculus is a quantitive assessment of a situation
                  1. Immediacy
                    1. We should bear in mind how distant the anticipated benefits of each possible course of action are. The more distant the beenfits the less weight we should give them in making our decision.
                    2. Succession
                      1. The likelihood that the pleasure or pain will be followed by more pleasure or pain . Whether the pleasure or pain is followed by more pleasure or pain should effect your decision.
                      2. Duration
                        1. Longer lasting pleasure is preferred over pleasure only lasting a short period of time.
                        2. Certainty
                          1. The probability of the pleasure resulting from the act.Will it definitely bring pleasure of only possibly bring pleasure.
                          2. Extent
                            1. The more people that enjoy the pleasure the better.
                            2. Intenisity
                              1. Mild pleasure is less valuabale than intense pleasure. Acts leading to the latter are preferred to the former acts.
                              2. Purity
                                1. An act that causes only pleasure is better than one that causes the same amount of pleasure mixed with a little pain.
                                2. To calculate the greatest happiness for the greatest number, you will need to determine and predict the amount of happiness that will be produced from each action. From this calculation you can then determine which action to take as the one that creates the most happiness is the right one. The way in which a utilitarian would calculate this would be to use the following categories.
                                3. Principle of utility
                                  1. Bentham believed that the rightness or wrongness of an action was judged by its utility or usefulness to produce pleasure.
                                    1. The act that produces the most happiness is the most moral.
                                    2. Mill's utilitarianism
                                      1. Mill's life
                                        1. Mill was heavily influenced by Bentham from an early age.
                                          1. Mill has been linked to the creation of modern feminism
                                            1. Mill is considered one of the greatest and the most influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century.
                                              1. Mill adjusted Bentham's theory of utilitarianism
                                                1. J.S Mill
                                                2. Mill believed that the well-being of an individual was heightened when the individual is able to pursue their own end.
                                                  1. Mill believed that the well-being of any one person was the most important deciding factor in any decision made.
                                                    1. Quality over quantity
                                                      1. Distinguishes the difference between higher and lower pleasures. That some pleasures were worth more than others. Pleasures of the mind were more valuable then pleasures of the body.
                                                        1. Mill believed that gaining a higher pleasure should be considered better than one without even if the person gained some sadness from the action taken.
                                                          1. "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied. Better to be socrates dissatisfied then a fool satisfied "
                                                            1. "Human beings have more than animal desires and once we know that we do not regard anything as true happiness that include satisfaction of those desires"
                                                            2. Strengths and weaknesses of Mill's Utilitarianism
                                                              1. Strengths
                                                                1. It takes the situation into account while still maximising the importance of the individual.
                                                                  1. Mill's utilitarianism is supported by christrian believes.
                                                                    1. The idea of higher and lower pleasures gives more justification
                                                                    2. Weaknesses
                                                                      1. The idea of pleasure and pain is subjective.
                                                                        1. Not everyone is capable of determining the probability of consequences of actions.
                                                                          1. There is no strict definitiion of what higher and lower pleasures are.
                                                                      2. Strengths and weaknesses of Bentham's Utilitarianism
                                                                        1. Weaknesses
                                                                          1. Impractical
                                                                            1. It is impractical to suggest that we have time to deliberate and apply the calculus to every situation we come across especially as we may not have the full information.
                                                                            2. Strengths
                                                                              1. Intuitively correct
                                                                                1. It is intuitively correct becuase common sense dictates that all situations are not identical and sometimes a different approach is needed.
                                                                                2. Yard Stick
                                                                                  1. Bentham created the principle of utility as a method of social reform. It is a way of testing a law for its utility for human kind. If it does not meet the goals of a human then Bentham argued the law should be changed.
                                                                                  2. Cultural diversity
                                                                                    1. It takes into account cultural diversity. Each culture is allowed to operate equally and in parallel without one being considered more superior than the other.
                                                                                    2. Humanistic
                                                                                      1. It seeks to maximise a human goal, its basis is therefore grounded in humanity and does not seek authority from another source.
                                                                                  3. Act, Rule and Preference utilitarianism
                                                                                    1. Act
                                                                                      1. An act utilitarian would want to decide what action would lead to the greatest good and apply the principle of utility directly.
                                                                                        1. Consequential
                                                                                          1. Relative
                                                                                            1. Telelogical
                                                                                              1. Weaknesses and strengths of act utilitarianism
                                                                                                1. Weaknesses
                                                                                                  1. There is the potential to justify any act.
                                                                                                    1. It is difficult to predict the consequences .
                                                                                                    2. Strengths
                                                                                                      1. Act utilitarianism can be universally used.
                                                                                                        1. The hedonic calclus is clearly structured and culturally relative.
                                                                                                      2. Jeremy Bentham
                                                                                                      3. Rule
                                                                                                        1. Relative
                                                                                                          1. Deontological
                                                                                                            1. Consequential
                                                                                                              1. A rule utilitarian would judge the action by the good-ness or badness of the action for everyone involved.
                                                                                                                1. Strengths and weaknesses of rule utilitarianism
                                                                                                                  1. Strengths
                                                                                                                    1. Encourages people to be kinder to produce maximum happiness
                                                                                                                      1. Encourages people to aim for higher pleasures
                                                                                                                      2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                                        1. There is no clear guidance
                                                                                                                          1. Rule utilitarianism does not look into an individuals
                                                                                                                        2. Mill
                                                                                                                        3. Preference
                                                                                                                          1. Hare
                                                                                                                            1. Singer
                                                                                                                              1. Telelogical
                                                                                                                                1. A preference utilitarian judges actions on being morally right or wrong according to whether or not it fits to preferences of all involved.
                                                                                                                                  1. Strengths and weaknesses of preference utilitarianism
                                                                                                                                    1. Strengths
                                                                                                                                      1. Allows a person to make a personal decision.
                                                                                                                                        1. Choices do not be effected by others opinions.
                                                                                                                                        2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                          1. Som people are incapable of making their own decisions.
                                                                                                                                            1. There are no set guidelines that can be followed
                                                                                                                                              1. The individuals decision may not benefit the mass.
                                                                                                                                            2. Peter Singer
                                                                                                                                              1. Singer is an Australian philosophy. He was one of the main theorists in bringing about the newest form of utilitarianism, preference utilitarianism.
                                                                                                                                              2. Hare
                                                                                                                                                1. R.M Hare was an English philosophy. He along with Singer was one of the main theorists in creating preference utilitarianism.
                                                                                                                                        3. Bentham worked on legal reforms and wrote the principles of morals and legislations in 1789
                                                                                                                                          1. Born in London at a time of great scientific and social change.
                                                                                                                                            1. Demands were being made for greater democracy and better human rights.
                                                                                                                                              1. Founder of utilitarianism - the greatest happiness principle
                                                                                                                                                1. Jeremy Bentham
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