➡️North America began as a sort of extension of Europe. So it remained extremely dependent of Europe.
↪️And yet, right through the start, it wasn’t real similar to Europe :
↪️American environment = it was different ; its why Europeans were encouraged to change and get used to their
institutions and their new environment.
➡️From the very beginning the American society was sign of nobility and dynamism.
➡️Europeans settlers weren’t from the same countries, a lot were influenced by :
✅But the English influence was dominant.
B. Physical setting.➕
There were fertile farmlands :
↪️lot of Indian corn
↪️edibe plants from Europe could be cultivated there.
▪️so it was very fertile there were also NAVIGABLE RIVERS.
➡️Somethings was really different : the weather;
↪️winters were longer and colder and summer hotter.
↪️Forests were more dangerous and wild, so they had to adapt to these characteristics.
➡️Europeans settlers also imported :
▪️anyways animals from Europe so that way, they could adapt better.
C. American Indians.➕
➡️Cultural varied -; nomadic / sedentary ; pacific / warriors ; tepees / stone dwellings.
➡️There were more than 600 languages.
➡️Anyways, natives were the real ones, the Mayas, the Incas.
➡️They knew nothing of steel, metal cooking utensils or firearms....
➡️they knew how to grow Indian corn and tobacco.
➡️➡️Europeans were very hostiles because :
↪️The natives had polytheist religions.
↪️They were opposed to private ownership of land; that meant anything to the natives.
➕So whites wanted to refine their identity and how they were.
D. British colonization.
➡️Of course Spain realized that it would be extremely hard to defend the whole land, so a pact was signed with Portugal :
↪️in 1494, both countries agreed to draw a vertical line which divided the continent in two (West for S, East for P)
➕so Portugal had the right to settle a colony in South America - > Brazil.
➡️Spain continues its explorations in America but they decided to limit the exploration the south bc the north didn’t worth it so
France etc decided to settle too.
➡️But during all the XVIe, no one contested SPAIN and Portugal’s supremacy but it changed when in 1588, the great armada had
been defeated so it starts challenging Spain’s imperial dominance.
➡️England tried to settle colonies :
↪️In 1583 + 1591 = British attempts to found colonies ( w/ Gilbert and Raleigh) but it failed.
Join stock companies : crown + private ; they were doing commercial over a geo area like the Indians Companies ( used to jumpstart British colonization (e g.the East India Company, which had a commercial monopoly).
➡️In 1606, the king James I grants a charter (= someone can do smth w/ the king’s agreement ) fr trading posts not settlement to:
➕the London company
➕the Plymouth company.
➡️The Plymouth Company founded a colony in Maine, but they all failed after a few months.
➡️the London Company's colonies further in the south were much more successful and they eventually remained.
↪️In January 1608, 177 boys/men in total were sent to America, but only 104 survived the trip.
↪️In 1607, they founded Jamestown in Chesapeake bay (Virginia).
E. Early years in Jamestown
➡️The site chosen itself was swampy.
↪️A lot of them didn’t know how to cultivate these lands.
➡️As we said, it wasn't at the beginning a permanent colony, most of them were looking for quick wealth so they didn’t have the time for cultivate vegetables so they were looking for gold instead.
➡️So because of climate condition, mosquitoes and the lack of food ( because they didnt grow crops) :
➡️ January 1608, on a total of 104 colonists, most of them died of diseases and only 28/38 survived.
But then, the colony is saved by John Smith. Smith created like military discipline etc so it was good but when he left the colony on WINTER 1609 :
↪️starvation hit them again, from 500 settlers, only 60 survived. Ironically, whose who survived had been rescued
by natives = Powhatan’s confederacy; they decided to help them because they saw them as allies in exchange of
So they became allies and smth happened ; the negotiator kidnapped Pocahontas ( and potentially raped), Powhatan’s daughter; to be exhibited at the english’s court.
↪️We don’t know what really happened
➕but it ended by a war btw them; so they alliance ended.
➡️The europeans believed in their superiority but they wanted peace with them. Like they wanted peace but also standers.
➡️They also believed that the natives should adopt their way of living, but they refuses ofc.
➡️Smth else important :
↪️ 1607-1624, new settlers came years after : 8000 men, women and children had been sent by the London company
renamed as the Virginia Company but only 1300 survived the trip. Anyways they had to find
solutions to encourage people to go and settle there. + They were a lot of starvation and socials tensions so they had
to find a solution and that is what had been founded :
↪️In 1618, Is the establishment of the « headlight system » = person who imports a settler or a servant into
the colony is given 50 acres of land (202 000m2) = acceleration of emigration.
➡️1611 : tobacco is cultivated by British colonialist for the first time and this is because of that that Jamestown really became a
colony where familie should established themselves.
➡️In July 1619 : the house of burgesses, an elective assembly, in Virginia is established. It expresses the colony’s desire to have
a government that is autonomous from Britain.
➡️In 1622: Opechancanough ( Powhatan’s brother), much more hostile than his borther attacked Jamestown and killed 347
colonists. ( 1/4 of the colony)
➡️Jamestown was a threat but survived because of a native who was convert to Christianism so he warned them and
↪️ in 1646, the Powhatan confederacy is defeated, they had to recognize the superiority of British.
F. Life in Virginia and Maryland.
➡️In 1624 : Virginia becomes a royal colony : ruled by the king through officials based in America.
➡️When it became a royal colony, the house of burgesses is abolished by James but there were protests so :
↪️In 1629 : the burgesses is re-established.
➡️In 1632, the cheesecake bay là, Maryland is created as a proprietary colony = land is give to a noble family - >
to Lord Baltimore.
➡️Maryland was as the king wanted a haven for Catholics and as wanted by the Lord. So a place where Catholics could flee from British harassment.
➡️It was really like Virginia it terms of agriculture (tabacco...)
G. Labourers needed.
There were always needed and that’s explain why in 1619, dutch traders started importing African workers and slaves to North America and the West Indies.At the beginning they weren’t slaves ( mon oeil ).
↪️In 1650; 300 Africans living in America.
British looked first in England to find laborers as in 1640 the « headlight system » is adopted in Maryland.
British workers are employed as indentured servants :
↪️their passage to Ameria is paid,
↪️They could be sold by the masters but they were supposed to give them clothes…
↪️but they give up their liberty
↪️work for planters for a fixe period, usually 4-7 years-> 6/7 days and 10/15h per day)
↪️they could be beaten, sold or disciplined by their masters.
↪️60% lived long enough to require their freedom.
↪️In the 17th century : the indentured servant represented 75-85% of the 130 000 English migrants to America.
↪️1/5 of them were women -> hard to have natural growth
↪️Most of them were 15-24yo.
↪️Most of them were already farmers but they leave bc they weren't able to establish themselves in England
↪️After years of difficulties, they were able to live comfortable life
↪️Especially in Maryland, they were given lands after years.
➡️"seasoning" they had to adapt to America and if they were capable of, so they lived.
➡️In 1681, they stopped giving lands Because tobacco became expensive, and prices declines.
Life in Chesapeake was rude bc they were diseases and ppl were dyingyoung.
So in the 1700, the Chesapeake colonies were no longer attractivefor would-be migrants.
Peu de naissance car plus d'hommes que de femmes.
Also, they didn't have an identity on their own.
Which why, they didn't have institutions or strong police al thing.
II. New England.
➡️North of the Chesapeake Colonies.
➡️North of the Hudson River.
➡️First immigrants were actually looking for economic wealth.
↪️These economic migrants find it really cold and it wasn't as fertile as the Virginia lands.
➡️So soon, these colonies became different mostly bc they were puritans.
➡️So the puritan church was one of the first ones, the first real institution in new-England.
➡️Like the catholic church didn't have as much power as the puritans had in New England.
➡️New England was basically like a theocracy.
Calvinists -> belief in predestination.
Based on the old testament.
Wanted a more extremist Anglican church ( adultery should be sentenced by death )
They are more inclusive.
Famous for the witch hunt.
Pray a lot.
Among them; they were 2 types :
↪️The Congregationists who wanted to keep the English church but to change it
↪️Separatists who thought that the Anglican church doesn't deserve to be saved -> a new religious body should be
created far away from England -> America.
Other people had to testify that a person was a religious person like sponsorship.
Before America, they try to settle in Amsterdam but it failed. So they thought that Europe was corrupted and them they receive of colonizingAmerica and they became the peligrim's fathers.
C. The founding
➡️Sept 1620 : 100 ppl set sail from Plymouth on the mayflower
➡️They wanted to settle in Virginia but went northern -> Huston river.
➡️So they decided to settle and to found the city of Plymouth which was a old natives' city.
➡️So bc they had to create they own thing -> MAYFLOWER COMPACT in November 1620, bc they weren't in the Virginia thing
where they were already contracts..
➡️This compact was a sort of civil body politic and a governor had been elected.
➡️Ofc, they had difficulties to survive bc they arrived just before winter and less than the half was still alive after that.
➡️They were also natives with who they had to deal with :
They decided to make alliance with them bc the natives had big enemies in the south so in exchange to food, the
English were protecting them-> w/ the chief Massasoit and w/ the clans Narragansett and Pokanokets. So to
celebrate this they had thanksgiving, they created it; in autumn 1621.
D. The Massa bay
In 1625 -> Charles I became king, and it was a problem bc his wife was catholic so this accelerated puritans' emigration.
After 1625, not only would separatist Puritans have emigrated to America, the more moderate Congregationalists would emigrate as well : a group of Congregationalists were sent to northern America in 1628
And in 1629, they had a royal charter with is an authorisation of creating a new colony so they institutioned themselves by creating the Massachusetts bay Compagny and the most important figure pf that was John Winthrop -> governor of the MBC (1629-1649) : He was the first man to actually organize wide scale Puritan emigration to America.
1630 -> more than 1000 puritans were sent to the Massa thanks to John, Boston became the biggest town in British North America quite quickly.
1643 -> 20 000 settlers were in Massa.
Most of them came from the same region of England ( east Anglia ) so they had the same way of living.
John Winthrop was himself a puritan and he thought that economic Inequalities were natural but he also thought that humans were equal.
So he believed that " every man need an other man and everyman need to display a faction of any other man" -> every relation btw men should be peaceful.
" In America, we shall be a city upon a hill, the eyes of all
people are upon us" -> it was like a godly mission -> the puritans
had to settle, it was the only way :
This was a doctrine named " THE DOCTRINE COVENANT IDEAL l " DCI ; they had to agree with a God, they had been chose to settle in America. Puritans actually signed that.
also covenant with each other " we will work. Together" so they
pledged to build new churches and usually agree to the settle laws ( in
1639, they made laws and adopted the Fundamental Orders Connecticut FOC and
this brang to the creation of the general court of the MBC ).
MANIFEST DESTINY DOCTRINE.
E. Life in New
1. life in society.
Most of the settlers wanted to stay.
family unit being the basic structure for communities..
They didn't want to recreate what they left.
New England was quite attractive
It did not rely on the “headright system” ; instead, people would have to apply for integration/assimilation in North America.
Groupe of ppl who wanted to settle a village had to pass by the General Couwhere he could tell about his intention.
It was up to them to see how land would be distributed were the projectapproved
of. Most of the
time, ministers and upper class people would be granted the better plots of
land, despite the egalitarian ideals of the government. The population would
spread out across the region ; stronger urbanisation than in Virginia/Maryland.
In NE, it was more compact bc it was small villages ( compared to
religion and insitu°
more about agriculture run by families.
Boston became dynamic ports -> THE COASTAL MODEL
products that were produced in NE destined to other towns. -> THE TOWN
Houses in NE were quite solid, they were made to last.
Most Virginia's migrants were men and in NE, they were families.
NE had more stable situations than other colonies -> became
healthier quite quickly andthan Europe too.
Religious life :
One had to
be part of the church and had land to vote.
moral code ( behaviour, witches during The Witch Hunt Trials in Salem ;
There were divergences even amongst puritans :
Roger Williams -> to him, the king of
England didnt have the right to give away Indian land, he said that their
relationship should be peaceful. To him, the church and the state should
also be separate; even if he was a puritan he thought that puritans
shouldnt force ppl to accept their faith. He was also for tolerance of
religion and founded his own town -> Providence and a new colony : Rhode Island and this place was a haven for ppl who were persecuted
( example : it was the only place where Jews were tolerated )
F. Relationships with
There were tensions and especially with the Pequots with who it
ended with a war :
1637 : war
against the Pequot -> 400 pequots are killed ( mostly women/children)
(the settlers had the help of Narragansett )
1643 : the
Narragansett attempt to forge a pan-indian alliance. It was almost made
but one of their leaders died and the thing never happened.
They had little contact btw them and the puritans at the beginning
didn't want to convert the natives to Christianism.
III. The middle colonies
and the Carolinas.
In 1642 -> the civil war begins. ( cavaliers vs Roundheads )
↪️Most of the Roundheads were strict protestants and puritans.
➡️In 1649 -> Charles is executed.
↪️Cromwell is here and during 10 years = the interregnum; this is not a monarchy anymore.
➡️In 1660 -> Charles II on the throne.
➡️This time had a huge consequence in the colonies bc it means during this time, some puritans re-immigrated to England bc who were governing weremost puritans.
B. The Restoration
6 restoration colonies ;
➡️ were proprietary colonies it means that Charles II gave those lands to thanks the ppl that helped him during the Interregnum.
➡️He gave New-York to his brother James ( duke of York ) : but this colony was at the beginning a Dutch colony, New Amsterdam.
↪️So to that, in august 1664-65, James invaded new netherland and it was really weak, so it was simple.
C. New York
Even at the time, the city was pretty big.
➡️At first, not really successful bc puritans were moving in N-E and N-J.
➡️Really diverse :
1) Significant puritans minorities
3) French speaking from Belgium
4) African slaves
5) Manhattan had 1500 inhabitants ( most slaves )
➡️In 1665, Duke James' first piece of legislation in 1665 :
↪️the Duke's laws = were only applied to English and puritans community.
➡️Dutch way of distributing kept.
➡️religion tolerance kept
➡️Not really successful at the beginning :
↪️surrounded by bigger colonies ( Jerseys; Connecticut).
➡️Yet, James was quite ferm of the way of governing bc he believe in absolute monarchy.
↪️but revolts happened so in 1683 had been created an assembly .
➡️He extended his lands in New-Jersey ( more fertile) ? And let ppl have their own body?
D. The ST of friends.
The Jerseys -> was a proprietary colony but the proprietors
decided to sell their chars to people . And they sold some to the Society of friends also known as the Quakers.
They were pretty much persecuted so they wanted to get a haven.
➡️The Quakers were some brotherhood;
➡️they believed that anyone could access to God's knowledge.
➡️They were for religious tolerance and respect.
➡️they believe in :
↪️in an "inner light".
↪️that everyone could be saved # to puritans.
↪️in the bible but not in any type of church or smth.
➕So because of that, they had no institutes; no clergy etc.
➡️Everyone could become a "public friend" and spread god's words -> a preacher.
➡️They have a very equal point of view about society. In contrary to puritans, they didn't see puritans/Anglicans as heretics.
➡️So in 1681 : William Penn is granted a charter by the king ( he owed it money ) to found a colony ->; haven for all religions.
➡️They founded Pennsylvania (region btw Maryland and n-y):
↪️he wanted that this colony should be a haven for everyone so he gave lands to anyone w/o regarding their religions
➕BUT the non-Christians couldn't vote.
➡️They had a representative assembly.
➡️Pennsylvania was a very attractive colony for merchants/artisans from the British but also from other colonies like New-York
↪️so Quakers came ++ = 12 000 inhabitants IN THE LATE 1680s.
↪️It was really fertile ( flour + agri. Prod ) -> west indies. So very soon, they challenged Boston's production
because they didn't have any restrict° by the crown.
Then, Cromwell created the NAVIGATION ACT to restrict the merch but it was difficult bc it was far away -> salutary neglect = in practice no restrict° or enforcement of restrictive acts.
Carolina was another proprietary colony prompted by Charles II In 1663.
➡️The colony which was supposed to be one and only colony btw Virginia and Spanish Florida.
➡️It was to contain any expansion of the Spanish.
➡️The climate was semi-tropical :
extremely fertile (commodities : figs; olives; wine and seek also SUGAR and RICE )
➡️At the beginning, it was a political experiment like his constitution has being written by a philosopher = John Locke.
➡️But it failed and the Carolina was split in two in 1670's because :
↪️North Carolina was influenced but Virginia so it became literally like it based on tobacco's
↪️South Carolina was more urban thanks to the major city :
➕Charlestown ( 1670's) and founded by a group of planters from the Barbados -> British West Indies
➡️In south Carolina, slavery was already something. When the Barbadians came; they came w/ their slaves and their constitution/laws which was really strict towards slaves.
↪️And quickly, it became sugar plantations.
( and the triangular trade )