Bacteriophages

zil22
Mind Map by zil22, updated more than 1 year ago
zil22
Created by zil22 about 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Bacteriophages, created by zil22 on 02/23/2015.
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Resource summary

Bacteriophages
1 Horizontal Gene Transfer
1.1 Generalized Transduction
1.1.1 Pathogenicity Islands
1.1.2 Lack of Phage DNA in capsid
1.2 Specialized Transduction
1.2.1 Adjacent Bacterial Genes in Phage
1.2.1.1 Phage Imparement
1.3 Phage Morons
1.3.1 Addition of Bacterial Genes to Phage Genome
1.4 Movement of Phage Genes
1.4.1 Lysogenic Converting Genes
2 Biotechnology Applications
2.1 Phage Therapy
2.1.1 Treat Bacterial Infections
2.1.1.1 Growth/Harvest
2.1.1.1.1 Isolation from Environmental Samples
2.1.1.1.1.1 Soil
2.1.1.1.1.2 Sewage
2.1.1.1.1.3 Feces
2.1.1.1.1.4 Water
2.1.1.1.1.5 Retail Foods
2.1.1.2 Safety
2.1.1.2.1 Host Range
2.1.1.2.2 Host Specificity
2.1.1.2.2.1 Genera
2.1.1.2.3 Immune Response
2.1.1.2.3.1 To enzymes?
2.1.1.2.3.1.1 Not in mice
2.1.1.2.4 USSR Research
2.1.1.2.5 Testing for residual phages
2.1.1.2.5.1 Sample contamination issues?
2.1.1.3 Administer in Food or Water
2.1.1.3.1 Pre-Biotic
2.1.1.3.1.1 Control of Salmonella in Chickens
2.1.1.3.1.1.1 If this works, why aren't we using it?
2.1.1.3.1.2 EPECs
2.1.1.3.1.2.1 Calves
2.1.1.3.1.2.2 Piglets
2.1.1.3.1.2.3 Lambs
2.1.1.3.1.3 E. coli O157:H7 Shedding
2.1.1.3.1.3.1 Beef Cattle
2.1.1.3.2 Tail Spike Proteins (Tsps)
2.1.1.3.2.1 Podoviridae P22 bacteriophage
2.1.1.3.2.1.1 Targets lipopolysaccharides
2.1.1.3.2.1.1.1 Salmonella Typhimurium in live chickens
2.1.1.4 Dysentery
2.1.2 Prevent Infection
2.2 Bacterial Detection
2.3 Bacterial Idenification
2.3.1 LAB
2.4 Phage Display
2.4.1 DNA/Protein Identification
2.5 Phage Wash Intervention
2.5.1 Live Animal Wash
2.6 Which pathogens are targetable
2.6.1 Phage Selection
2.6.2 How long of exposure is necessary?
2.6.2.1 High Phage Concentration
2.6.2.1.1 Overwhelm Pathogenic Cells During Primary Infection
2.6.2.1.1.1 Phage Resistance Not Relevant
2.6.2.1.1.2 Cell Lysis without Phage Replication
2.6.2.1.1.2.1 Membrane Electric Potential Disrupted
2.6.2.1.1.2.2 Cell Wall Degradation Enzymes
2.6.2.2 Low Phage Dose - Relying on Secondary Infection
2.6.2.2.1 Phage Replication and Subsequent Cell Lysis
2.6.2.2.1.1 Transmission to Neighboring Target Cells
2.6.2.3 Differences between object to be decontaminated
2.6.3 Enzybiotics
2.6.3.1 Hollin
2.6.3.1.1 Works with lysins to lyse cells from within
2.6.3.1.1.1 Export lysins through inner membrane to gain access to peptidoglycan layer
2.6.3.2 Bacteriocins
2.6.3.3 Peptidoglycan (murein) hydrolases

Annotations:

  • http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00542/full
2.6.3.3.1 Lysin/Endolysin
2.6.3.3.1.1 Chimeolysins
2.6.3.3.1.1.1 Cell Wall Binding Domains (CBDs)
2.6.3.3.1.1.2 Catalytic Domains
2.6.3.3.1.2 Artificial lysins (artilysins)
2.6.3.3.1.2.1 Whole or partial lysin plus a peptide or protein
2.6.3.3.1.2.1.1 Gram positive and negative bacteria simultaneously
2.6.3.3.1.2.1.1.1 Gram negative bacteria may be less susceptible to lysins due to outer membrane differences?
2.6.3.3.1.2.1.2 Improved activity
2.6.3.3.1.3 Six categories
2.6.3.3.2 Lethal 'from without'
2.6.3.3.2.1 Digest cell walls
2.6.3.3.2.1.1 MDR gram positive baceria
2.6.3.3.2.1.1.1 Restriction enzymes not a problem?
2.6.3.3.2.1.1.2 Treatment of systematic infections
2.6.3.3.2.1.1.2.1 MRSA
2.6.3.3.2.1.1.2.2 E. faecium
2.6.3.3.2.1.1.2.3 Streptococcus pneumoniae
2.6.3.3.2.2 Is activity lost over time?
2.6.3.3.2.2.1 Removal of CBD
2.6.3.3.2.2.1.1 Retains specificity
2.6.3.3.2.2.2 Phages neutralized by sanitizers?
2.6.3.3.3 Do not affect normal microflora
2.6.3.3.4 Effective on mucosal surfaces
2.6.4 Phage Resistance
2.6.4.1 Restriction Enzymes
2.7 Delivery Vehichles
2.7.1 Gene Therapy
2.7.2 Vaccines
2.7.3 Antimicrobials?
2.7.3.1 Treat In-Plant Food Contact Surfaces
2.7.3.1.1 Enzymatic Targeting of Biofilms
2.7.3.1.1.1 Hydrolysis of exopolysaccharides
2.8 Bioactive Packaging
2.8.1 FDA Approved Food Additive to Prevent Lm Outgrowth Since 2006
2.8.2 FDA Approved Treatment of Meat and Chicken Parts
2.8.3 E. coli O157:H7
3 Ecology
3.1 Human Microbiome
3.1.1 Targeting "Good" Bacteria
3.1.2 Targeting "Bad" Bacteria
3.1.3 Normal Function
3.1.3.1 Prevalence in Organ Systems
3.1.3.1.1 Biofilm Genes
3.2 Aquatics
3.2.1 Water Quality Assay
3.2.1.1 Fecal Contamination
3.3 Sources of Phages
3.3.1 Phage Susceptibility
3.4 Crops?
3.4.1 Treat Pathogen Internalization?
4 Bacterial Disease
4.1 Coliphage T4
5 Life Cycle
5.1 Attachment
5.1.1 Adsoption
5.1.1.1 Cell Death: Phage Death
5.1.1.1.1 Abortive Infection
5.1.1.2 Cell Life: Phage Death
5.1.1.2.1 CRISPR/cas Systems
5.1.1.2.2 Restriction Endonucleases
5.1.1.2.2.1 Phage Resistance!
5.1.1.3 Cell Death: Phage Life
5.1.1.3.1 Lytic Infection
5.1.1.4 Cell Life: Phage Life
5.1.1.4.1 Temperate Phase
5.1.1.4.2 Lysogenic Infection
5.1.1.4.2.1 Gene Expression
5.1.1.4.2.1.1 Prophage Lamda
5.1.1.4.2.1.2 Antimicrobial Resistance
5.1.1.4.2.1.3 Is it possible to encode a gene sequence into a pathogen genome, through use of a phage, to impede virulence or enhance a desirable trait?
5.1.1.4.2.1.3.1 Insertion of lethal gene to kill cells without lysis
5.1.1.4.2.1.3.1.1 Prevent release of endotoxins in cells
5.1.1.4.2.1.3.2 Genes to increase sensitivity to antibiotics
5.1.1.4.2.1.3.3 Insert genes for bacteriocins into probiotic cells
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