GCSE AQA Chemistry Atomic Structure and Bonding

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A mixture of Unit 1 and Unit 2 AQA Chemistry for GCSE level

Joseph Tedds
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GCSE AQA Chemistry Atomic Structure and Bonding
1 Atoms
1.1 Atoms consist of a nucleus orbited by electrons
1.2 Protons, neutrons and electrons are sub-atomic particles
1.2.1 Protons The number of protons determines the element If an element has only 1 proton it is hydrogen If an element has 2 protons it is helium etc.... Protons have a relative charge of + Protons have a relative atomic mass of 1
1.2.2 Neutrons Neutrons have a relative charge of 0 Neutrons have a relative atomic mass of 1
1.2.3 Electrons Electrons have a relative charge of - Electrons have a relative atomic mass of 0
1.3 The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons
1.4 An atom contains the same number of protons as electrons
1.5 The relative atomic mass is determined by the number of protons added to the number of neutrons
2 The Periodic Table
2.1 The periodic table is an information source that displays various properties of different elements and groups them accordingly
2.2 Elements are listed with symbols that represent them and are used in all formulas
2.2.1 Hydrogen's symbol is H
2.2.2 These can be one or two letters, the first always capitalised
2.2.3 Helium's symbol is He
2.2.4 These symbols are usually either taken directly from the name or from the same name in a different language Gold is Au taken from its Latin name aurum Hydrogen is H taken from he start of the word
2.3 Groups
2.3.1 Groups on the periodic table are columns
2.3.2 Groups of elements have similar properties because they have the same number of outer shell electrons
2.3.3 Group 8/0 the Noble Gases Helium Argon Krypton Radon Xenon Neon These are unreactive because they have a full outer shell of electrons
2.3.4 Group 1 the Alkali Metals Potassium Francium Caesium Hydrogen (technically) Rubidium Lithium Sodium These are very reactive as they only have one electron in their outer shell
2.3.5 The group number is the number of electrons in the outer shell
2.4 Periods
2.4.1 Periods are rows on the periodic table
2.4.2 The period is the number of energy shells or layers an atom has
3 Electron shells
3.1 Electrons orbit the nucleus in energy layers or shells
3.2 The shells can only contain a certain amount of electrons
3.2.1 The first shell can contain 2 electrons
3.2.2 The second shell can only contain 8 electrons
3.2.3 The third shell can hold more than 8 electrons but at GCSE level you only need to know it can hold 8
3.3 Energy shells are filled from the lowest level upwards
3.4 Atoms want to gain a full outer shell of electrons and so this is why they react
3.5 Electronic Structure
3.5.1 Electronic structures are diagrams of the energy shells of an atom
3.5.2 The diagram is then described by a series of numbers that show the electron is each shell Carbon is 2.4
3.5.3 Method 1 Draw a nucleus, no detail is necessary To calculate the electronic structure find the number of protons as this is equal to the number of electrons Look at the number of electrons each shell can hold and calculate how many shells you need Look at the number of electrons each shell can hold and place accordingly filling from the lowest shell
3.5.4 Method 2 Draw the nucleus, no detail is necessary Look at the period of the atom and draw that many of energy shells Look at the group number and fill all the other energy shells up to the outer shell which you put the group number of electrons in
4 Ionic Bonding
4.1 Ions give or take electrons
4.2 This is held together by electromagnetic forces
4.3 This is between metals and non-metals
4.4 Giant Ionic Lattices
4.5 An ion is a charged particle
4.6 High melting point
4.7 High Boiling Point
4.8 Will carry a current in solution and melted
5 Covalent Bonding
5.1 This is between non-metals
5.2 Atoms share electrons
5.3 Molecules
5.4 Giant Structure
5.4.1 High Melting Point
5.4.2 High Boiling Point
5.4.3 No conduction of electricity (except graphite)
5.4.4 Strong covalent bonds
5.5 Simple Structure
5.5.1 Low Melting Points
5.5.2 Low Boiling Points
5.5.3 No conduction of electricity
5.5.4 Weak intermolecular bonds