Organelles and their Functions

Robyn Chamberlain
Mind Map by Robyn Chamberlain , updated more than 1 year ago
Robyn Chamberlain
Created by Robyn Chamberlain over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Organelles and their Functions, created by Robyn Chamberlain on 09/20/2013.
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Resource summary

Organelles and their Functions
1 Nucleus
1.1 Nucleolus
1.1.1 Manufactures ribosome RNA and assembles ribosomes.
1.2 Nuclear Envelope
1.2.1 Controls exit and entry of materials in cell. Outer membrane continous with the endoplasmic reticulm
1.3 Nuclear Pores
1.3.1 Passage of large molecules (MRNA) out of the nucleus
1.4 Chromatin
1.4.1 DNA and assosiated proteins. Packages DNA into a smaller consistency.
1.5 Nucleoplasm
1.5.1 Like cytoplasm and surround the nucleolus

Annotations:

  • Contains Enzymes and nucleotides
2 Chloroplast
2.1 Stoma
2.1.1 Enzymes for light and independant stages of photosynthesis
2.2 Grana/Thylakoids/amellae
2.2.1 Light dependant stage of photosynthesis
2.3 Starch Grain
2.3.1 Temporary storage of carbohydrates
3 Mitrochondria
3.1 Double membrane
3.1.1 Inner membrane folded into cristae provides a large surface area.
3.2 Matrix
3.2.1 Genetic infomation - DNA, enzymes and ribosomes

Annotations:

  • ATP - Energy currency
3.3 Site of krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in aerobic respiration.
4 Endoplasmic Reticulum
4.1 Smooth (SER)
4.1.1 No ribosomes - tubular in appearance
4.1.2 Synthesis, stoage and transport of liquids and carbohydrates
4.1.3 Contains lytic emzymes

Annotations:

  • (e.i. liver cells)
4.1.4
4.2 Rough (RER)
4.2.1 Membranes spreading through the sytoplasm of cells (continuous with the nuclear membrane)
4.2.2 Enclosed flattened sacs are called listernae
4.2.3 Provides LSA for synthesis of protein
4.2.4 Provides a pathway for transport of material (protein) throughout the cell
4.2.5 Surrounded by ribosomes
5 Ribosomes
5.1 There is the small subunits and the large subunits

Annotations:

  • Subunits combine together and hold (m+t)RNA between them before taking them to where ever they are needed.
5.2 Two types
5.2.1 80S - Eukaryotic cells

Annotations:

  • An organism which contains a nucleus surrounded by a membrane 10-100 micrometers
5.2.1.1 Metabolism - Aerobic
5.2.1.2 Organelles - Protista, fungi, plants and animals.
5.2.1.3 I am limited on my knowldge of these one
5.2.2 70S - Prokataryotic Cells

Annotations:

  • 'Pro' - Before 'Aryoyic' - Neucleus Cell size - 1-10 micrometers
5.2.2.1 Heredity DNA is concealed here
5.2.2.2 No membrane bound organisms
5.2.2.3 Contais no nucleus

Annotations:

  • Some do contain a circular nucleus.
5.2.2.4 Metaboblism - Anaerobic and Aeriobic
5.2.2.5 Absence of 'true nucleus' is in bacteria and Blue green algae

Annotations:

  • Blue green Algae is also know as Cyanobacteria.
5.2.2.6 Structures always present; Cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes and circular DNA.
5.3 Makes up 25% of dry mass cells
5.4 Important to proteins

Annotations:

  • Binds amino acids RNA messenger Transfers RNA
6 Golgi Apparatus
6.1 Modifies and packages protein
6.2 Adds carbohydrates to protein to form glycoproteins
6.3 Secretes carbohydrates
6.4 Transports, modifies and stores liquid
7 Cilia & Flagella
7.1 Stucture
7.1.1 Tube shaped plasma membrane
7.1.2 Nine pairs of microtubules within the plasma membrane
7.1.3 Dynein arm in a circle around the microtubules
8 Centrioles
8.1 Hollow microtubules
8.2 Form spindle fibres for nuclear division
8.3 Involved with making cytoskeletons
8.3.1 Made of protein and microtubules
8.3.2 Move Chromosomes around in cell divison
8.3.3 Move Vesicles

Annotations:

  • From the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus
9 Plant Cell Wall
9.1 Made of cellulose
9.2 Supports cell
9.2.1 Turgor pressure - Controls the moment in which the cell would burst due to the concentration of liquids becoming to much for the plasma membrane and cell wall to handle.
10 Plasma membrane
10.1 Seperates the innerds of the cell with the other things
10.2 Controls what enters and exits the cell.

Annotations:

  • For example; Osmosis. You need a semi-permiable mebrane for the water to be able to pass through the wall to level concentraion levels.
11 Cytoplasm
11.1 Where rections happen
11.2 Surrounds everything in cell but is surrounded by membrane
12 Lysosomes

Annotations:

  • Animal cells only
  • Me and my friend remember the function of this by naming it the 'bouncer' organelle of a cell.
12.1 Contains acid hydrolase enzymes which break down proteins
12.2 Digest worn out organelles, food and viruses
12.3 Glycosy
13 Vacuole
13.1 Tonoplast
13.1.1 The 'Plasma membrane' of the vacuole
13.1.2 Controls what enters and exits the vacuole
13.2 Sap/Liquid

Annotations:

  • Sap - PlantLiquid - Animal
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