THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

mia820
Mind Map by mia820, updated more than 1 year ago
mia820
Created by mia820 almost 5 years ago
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Description

the immune system, from the Campbell AP Bio book, 9th (?) edition

Resource summary

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
1 INNATE IMUNITY
1.1 characteristics
1.1.1 present before any exposure
1.1.2 @ birth
1.1.3 nonspecific (small set of receptors)
1.1.4 rapid response
1.2 external barriers
1.2.1 skin/exoskeleton
1.2.1.1 low pH
1.2.2 mucous membrane secretions
1.2.2.1 urinary
1.2.2.2 respiratory
1.2.2.3 reproductive
1.2.2.4 MUCUS> traps microbes
1.2.2.5 hostile enviro to microbes
1.2.2.5.1 tears
1.2.2.5.2 saliva
1.3 internal cellular/chemical defences
1.3.1 phagocytic cells
1.3.1.1 HEMOCYTES in invertebrates
1.3.1.2 vertebrates
1.3.1.2.1 recognizes pathogens by TLRs
1.3.1.2.1.1 white blood cell eats microbe > fuses w/lysosome to destroy it
1.3.1.3 NEUTROPHILS engulf & destroy
1.3.1.4 MACROPHAGES found all over
1.3.1.5 DENDRITIC CELLS stimulate adaptive i.
1.3.1.6 eosinophils discharge destructive enzymes
1.3.2 NATURAL KILLER CELLS
1.3.2.1 circulate in body & detect abnormal cells
1.3.2.1.1 release chemicals > apoptosis
1.3.3 antimicrobial proteins
1.3.3.1 lysozyme
1.3.3.2 INTERFERON interferes w/virus, helps activate macrophages
1.3.3.3 COMPLEMENT SYSTEM causes lysis & helps trigger inflammation
1.3.4 inflammatory response
1.3.4.1 MAST CELLS release HISTAMINES
1.3.4.1.1 blood vessels dilate
1.3.4.1.1.1 neutrophils phagocytosize pathogens
1.3.4.2 activated macrophages & neutrophils > CYTOKINES (enhance immune response)
1.3.4.3 local vs. systemic
1.3.4.4 septic shock
2 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
2.1 characteristics
2.1.1 develops after exposure
2.1.2 v. specific (vast array of receptors)
2.1.3 slower response
2.2 humoral response
2.2.1 antibodies vs. pathogens in body fluids
2.2.1.1 H-T cell binds to pathogen via class II MHC
2.2.1.1.1 cytokines from H-T cells > B cell proliferates
2.2.1.1.1.1 makes memory B cells & PLASMA CELLS (antibody-secreting effectors)
2.2.2 B cell a.r. binds to antigen
2.2.2.1 cells secrete ANTIBODIES (Ig)

Annotations:

  • similar to b antigen receptors only not attached to the b cell
2.2.2.1.1 marks pathogen for destruction
2.2.2.1.1.1 opsonization (making targets for phagocytosis
2.2.2.1.1.2 antigen-antibody complex + complement protein > complement protein activation > pores > lysis
2.2.2.1.2 bind to pathogen surface proteins to prevent infection
2.2.2.1.2.1 bind to toxins in fluids to stop them from entering body cells
2.2.2.1.3 classes of Ig
2.2.2.1.3.1 IgD: membrane bound
2.2.2.1.3.2 IgM: 1st soluble produced
2.2.2.1.3.3 igG: 2nd soluble, must abundant
2.2.2.1.3.4 IgA & IgE: soluble
2.2.2.2 light vs heavy regions
2.2.2.3 variable vs. constant regions
2.3 relies on T (thymus) and B (bone) LYMPHOCYTES
2.3.1 ANTIGEN substance that causes response from T/B cell
2.3.1.1 ANTIGEN RECEPTOR on T/B cells activate them when they come into contact w/pathogens
2.3.1.2 EPITOPE bit of antigen that binds to antigen receptor
2.4 cell mediated response
2.4.1 CYTOTOXIC T CELLS vs infected body cells
2.4.1.1 helper T cell cytokines
2.4.1.1.1 recognize frag of foreign proteins from infected cells
2.4.1.1.1.1 bind to class I MHC
2.4.1.1.1.1.1 secretes proteins that disrupt membranes of target cells > apoptosis
2.4.2 alpha and beta chains
2.4.3 variable vs constant regions
2.4.4 t cells bind to antigen fragments displayed/presented in host cell (ANTIGEN PRESENTATION0
2.4.4.1 MHC MOLECULES host proteins that display antigen bits
2.5 B & T cell development
2.5.1 diversity of lymphocytes & receptors
2.5.1.1 rearrangement of same gene > variety of chains
2.5.2 self tolerance
2.5.2.1 lymphocytes tested for receptors that may be spec. to body's own molecules > apoptosis /nonfunctional if positive
2.5.3 proliferation
2.5.3.1 CLONAL SELECTION
2.5.4 immunological memory
2.5.4.1 EFFECTOR CELLS act immediately
2.5.4.2 MEMORY CELLS make effector cells if antigen is encountered again
2.5.4.3 PRIMARY vs. SECONDARY immune response
2.6 HELPER T CELLS trigger both h and c-m responses
2.6.1 signals from H-T > antibodies > pathogens neutralized + T cells activated
2.6.1.1 ANTIGEN PRESENTING-CELLS have MHC molecules
2.6.1.2 MHC binds to helper T cell
2.6.1.2.1 H-T cell activated
2.6.1.2.1.1 proliferates & forms clone
2.6.1.2.1.1.1 activates appropropriate B cells
2.7 active vs passive
2.7.1 ACTIVE IMMUNITY
2.7.1.1 naturally develops from memory cells
2.7.1.2 or from IMMUNIZATION/ VACCINATION
2.7.2 PASSIVE IMMUNITY
2.7.2.1 immediate, short-term
2.7.2.2 mother > fetus via placenta/ breast milk
2.7.2.3 artificially injecting antibodies
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