F212 Unit 2: Food and Health

Gurdev Manchanda
Mind Map by Gurdev Manchanda, updated more than 1 year ago
Gurdev Manchanda
Created by Gurdev Manchanda almost 5 years ago
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Unfinished - mindmap of food and health unit of module F212, hope it helps

Resource summary

F212 Unit 2: Food and Health
1 Response to disease
1.1 specific immune response
1.1.1 produces antibodies
1.1.1.1 immunoglobulins - large proteins w/ specific shape complimentary to antigen of pathogen
1.1.1.2 structure= 4 polypeptide chains joined w/ disulfide bridges
1.1.1.2.1 constant region - heavy polypeptide chain - enables antibody to attach to pathogen -helps in phagocytosis
1.1.1.2.2 Variable region - ARMS - specific shape complimentary to antigen - bind to pathogen
1.1.1.2.3 Hinge region- flexibility - allow antibody to attach to more than one antigen
1.1.1.3 NEUTRALISATION - antibodies cover pathogen binging sites - prevent pathogen from binding to host cell or entering
1.1.1.4 AGGLUTINATION - Large antibody binds with many pathogen - group becomes too large to enter host cell
1.1.2 gives immunity to the disease bc produces immunological memory release of memory cells
1.2 non specific response
1.2.1 phagocytes
1.2.1.1 phagocytosis
1.2.1.1.1 phagocyte identifies foreign antigen
1.2.1.1.1.1 cytoplasm moves around pathogen engulfing it
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 pathogen in phagocytic vacuole
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 lysosome fuses w/ phagocytic vacuole
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 digestive enzymes break down pathogen, absorbed into cytoplasm
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 phagocyte presents foreign antigens of pathogen
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 activate other immune system cells
1.2.1.2 neutrophils
1.2.1.3 macrophages
1.2.1.3.1 Antigen Presenting Cells
1.2.1.3.1.1 incorporate antigen of pathogen into a cell surface molecule
2 Plants and animals as food
2.1 microorganisms spoil food
2.1.1 keeping food fresh
2.1.1.1 salting = inhibits growth of microorganisms by decreasing water potential gradient of water into cell
3 Disease
3.1 Effects of lifestyle
3.1.1 diet
3.1.1.1 obesity
3.1.1.1.1 cancer
3.1.1.1.2 cardiovascular disease
3.1.1.1.3 type 2 diabetes
3.1.1.2 CHD
3.1.1.2.1 due to atherosclerosis (deposit of fatty substances in walls of coronary arteries)
3.1.1.2.1.1 narrows lumen
3.1.1.2.1.1.1 restricts blood flow
3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 can cause oxygen starvation
3.1.1.2.2 Increase Risk
3.1.1.2.2.1 excess salt
3.1.1.2.2.2 fats
3.1.1.2.2.2.1 saturated fats = low density lipoproteins
3.1.1.2.2.2.1.1 animal fats
3.1.1.2.2.3 cholesterol
3.1.1.2.2.3.1 stabilizes plasma membranes & is found in the skin
3.1.1.2.2.3.2 insoluble in water tf must be transported in form of lipoproteins
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.1 LP's are combinations of fats, proteins and CHOLESTEROL
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2 HDL'S
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.1 unsaturated fats, cholesterol and protein
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.2 body tissue back to liver
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.2.1 used in cell metabolism - to make bile
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.2.2 broken down
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.1 reduce blood cholesterol levels
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.3 polyunsaturated fats = increase activity of LDL receptors = decrease concentration of LDL's
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.3.1 reduce blood cholesterol levels
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.4 monounsaturated fats help remove LDL's from blood
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.2.4.1
3.1.1.2.2.3.2.3 LP's are released into blood and are taken up by cells that have the correct receptor sites
3.1.1.2.3 Decrease risk
3.1.1.2.3.1 dietary fibre
3.1.1.2.3.2 moderate alcohol consumption
3.1.1.2.3.3 oily fish
3.1.2 smoking
3.2 pathogenic organisms
3.2.1 fungi
3.2.1.1 Trichopyton rubrum = athletes foot
3.2.2 bacteria
3.2.2.1 Mycobacterium Tuberculosis = TB
3.2.3 viruses
3.2.3.1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus = HIV = AIDS
3.2.4 proctists
4 microorganisms to make food
4.1 need for conservation
4.2 improving growth of plants and animals
4.3 Yoghurt- lactobacillus bacteria uses lactose sugar in milk to make lactic acid = causes protein in milk to thicken
4.4 Cheese is made from milk that has curdled = lactobacillus bacteria acts upon the curd
4.5 Quorn mycoprotein single cell protein made by fungus
5 microorganisms to make antibiotics, plants to supply new medicines
5.1 search for new sources of medicine
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