(4) Key measures passed by the labour government of 1945-50


A level British History (Labour, Attlee 1945-51) Mind Map on (4) Key measures passed by the labour government of 1945-50, created by Marcus Danvers on 09/26/2013.
Mind Map by Marcus Danvers, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Marcus Danvers about 10 years ago

Resource summary

(4) Key measures passed by the labour government of 1945-50
  1. Welfare state
    1. National Insurance Act, 1946
      1. Universality
        1. Benefits paid for by insurance contributions from employers and workers
          1. Minimum number of contributions had to be paid before benefits could be drawn
          2. National Assistance Act, 1948
            1. This was for the unemployed and those who did not make contributions to
              1. Means tested help by regional offices of National Assistance Board
              2. National Heath Service Act, 1946
                1. Brought the whole population regardless of status or income, into a scheme of free medical and hospital treatment
                  1. Drug and prescription, dental and optical care was included
                    1. It was at first opposed by the British Medical Association because they were not comfortable in becoming state employees but where turned round because Bevan "had stuffed their mouths with gold" (for ever patent enrolled they got a small fee)
                  2. Housing
                    1. By 1945, there were 700,000 fewer houses than there had been in 1939
                      1. Anuerin Bevan Minister for Housing keep ‘only kept half a Nye on it!’( health his main concern)
                        1. Two main acts which were passed, ensuring lots of post-war prefabricated houses (157,000) with inside toilets. 750,000 were built by 1948.
                          1. Also passed was the Town and Country Planning Act (1947 – became law in 1948). This:
                            1. limited and controlled planning in towns and countryside
                              1. built 14 new towns (e.g. Stevenage for London; Corby in Northants)
                                1. brought in National Parks
                                2. They did not meet there targets of 300 homes a year
                                3. Education
                                  1. Butler Education Act (1944) produced a tripartite education system (grammar, technical, secondary modern) and was implemented by Labour. Did increase social mobility.
                                    1. Most authorities ignored the technical colleges and instead put most children in 25% in grammer and 75% to secondary modern
                                    2. Other measures put in place by Ellen Wilkinson (Education Minister):
                                      1. 928 new primary school buildings by 1950
                                        1. 35,000 extra teachers in a training programme
                                          1. School leaving age raised to 15 in 1947
                                        2. Economy
                                          1. Nationalisation of industry
                                            1. The government took control of industry through nationalisation
                                              1. The Labour Party was committed to “the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange” through Clause 4
                                                1. 20% of industry was to be nationalised Following industries were nationalised:
                                                  1. Civil aviation (Aug 1946)
                                                    1. Coal industry/ Cable and Wireless (Jan 1947)
                                                      1. Transport/ electricity (1948)
                                                        1. Steel industry (one profitable area and therefore controversial) (1951)
                                                          1. Gas (1949)
                                                          2. less controversial
                                                            1. Took over only non-viable industries; Railway owners glad to receive compensation for shares; Mine owners given £164m in compensation.
                                                            2. less radical
                                                              1. BBC and BOAC already effectively nationalised by Cons and some industries temporarily nationalised in wartime. Same managers stayed in place. Public corporation method preferred
                                                                1. E.G BoE in 1946 – governor and deputy governor re-appointed and invited for a glass of sherry with Chancellor
                                                                  1. E.G transport
                                                              2. US loan set up with the help of Keynes- US recalled all it loan at the end of WW2
                                                                1. Keynes wanted a $6 billion gifted or interested free loan from america
                                                                  1. USA agreed to a $3.75 billion dollar loan - Britain would loosen exchange controls on the pound after 1 year
                                                                2. Agriculture
                                                                  1. Tom Williams, Minister for Agriculture
                                                                    1. William became know as "the farmer's friend"
                                                                    2. The Agriculture Act of 1947
                                                                      1. Gave farmers guaranteed prices and moderate grant to encourage productivity
                                                                        1. Easy access to the government-run scientific advisory service
                                                                        2. Out put increasted by 146% of 1939 levels
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