WCC VCE PE: Energy Systems

Tim Hodge
Mind Map by Tim Hodge, updated more than 1 year ago
Tim Hodge
Created by Tim Hodge almost 5 years ago
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Description

A mindmap outlining Energy systems. The 3 pathways the body has to resynthesis ATP for movement

Resource summary

WCC VCE PE: Energy Systems
1 Anaerobic Energy Systems

Annotations:

  • Energy Systems that operate without Oxygen
1.1 ATP-PC Energy System
1.1.1 Fuel- ATP & PC

Annotations:

  • both stored in the muscle 2 secs of ATP 10 secs of PC
1.1.2 Rate- very fast

Annotations:

  • both fuels are stored in the muscles simple chemicle reaction torelease energy
1.1.3 Yield- very small

Annotations:

  • PC releases enpugh energy to resynthesise 0.7 ATP
1.1.4 By-products: Pi & ADP

Annotations:

  • Pi:    o  slows the release of calcium ions and reduces the contraction force of muscles    o  Removed best during passive recovery where high levels of O2 are available    
  • ADP:   o  accumulates during explosive activities and reduces the power muscles can exert     o  Removed best during passive recovery where high levels of O2 are available
1.1.5 Intensity: High (95% max HR)
1.1.6 Duration: Short

Annotations:

  • Dominant: 0-5 secs Peak: 2-4 secs
1.1.7 Example activites

Annotations:

  • Short Sprints (50-100m) Initial Contests in team sports Field events (HJ, LJ, Pole vault)
1.1.8 Recovery: Passive

Annotations:

  • PC can only be restored when high levels of O2 are present during passive recovery The more aerobically fit an athlete, the faster the recovery.
1.1.9 Fatiguing factors: Pi & ADP

Annotations:

  • Pi:    o  slows the release of calcium ions and reduces the contraction force of muscles    o  Removed best during passive recovery where high levels of O2 are available    
  • ADP:   o  accumulates during explosive activities and reduces the power muscles can exert     o  Removed best during passive recovery where high levels of O2 are available
1.2 Anaerobic Glycolysis Energy System
1.2.1 Fuel: Glycogen

Annotations:

  • Only partially broken down in Anaerobic conditions
1.2.2 Rate: Fast

Annotations:

  • Only Partially breaks down Glycogen in anaerobic environment
1.2.3 Yield: Small

Annotations:

  • Glycogen releases enough energy to resynthesise 2 ATP in Anaerobic conditions
1.2.4 By-products: H+ & ADP

Annotations:

  • H+   o  Increased amounts of H+ cause muscle acidity which slows the actions of glycolytic enzymes and the rate of glycogen breakdown o  Occurs when the Anaerobic Glycolysis ES has a higher contribution towards energy production o   LIP is an identifying factor of H+ accumulation o  Lactate Inflection Point § The L.I.P. has been exceeded when lactate appearance in the blood is greater than lactate removal from the blood.  (Lactate rises from a steady state) § When the L.I.P. is reached most energy is still supplied aerobically, however, an increased reliance on the Anaerobic Glycolysis energy system due to an increased intensity results in the lactate increase § Remember: It is not the lactate itself that causes fatigue. The rise in blood lactate is a good indicator of the amount of H+ that is in the muscle o  Removed best when oxygen levels are above resting and an increased blood flow is present. § Active Recovery  § Massage § Contrast bathing    
  • ADP:   o  accumulates during explosive activities and reduces the power muscles can exert     o  Removed best during passive recovery where high levels of O2 are available
1.2.5 Intensity: High (85%+ max HR)

Annotations:

  • Used for increases in intensity during long duration events when PC has not restored. However, it will not be dominant in these cirumstances, just an increased contibution
1.2.6 Duration: Intermediate

Annotations:

  • Dominant: 5-30 secs Peak: 5-15 secs
1.2.7 Recovery: Active
1.2.8 Example activities

Annotations:

  • 400m run repeated sprints 50m Swim
1.2.9 Fatiguing factors: H+ & ADP

Annotations:

  • H+   o  Increased amounts of H+ cause muscle acidity which slows the actions of glycolytic enzymes and the rate of glycogen breakdown o  Occurs when the Anaerobic Glycolysis ES has a higher contribution towards energy production o   LIP is an identifying factor of H+ accumulation o  Lactate Inflection Point § The L.I.P. has been exceeded when lactate appearance in the blood is greater than lactate removal from the blood.  (Lactate rises from a steady state) § When the L.I.P. is reached most energy is still supplied aerobically, however, an increased reliance on the Anaerobic Glycolysis energy system due to an increased intensity results in the lactate increase § Remember: It is not the lactate itself that causes fatigue. The rise in blood lactate is a good indicator of the amount of H+ that is in the muscle o  Removed best when oxygen levels are above resting and an increased blood flow is present. § Active Recovery  § Massage § Contrast bathing    
  • ADP:   o  accumulates during explosive activities and reduces the power muscles can exert     o  Removed best during passive recovery where high levels of O2 are available
2 Aerobic Energy System

Annotations:

  • Energy Systems that operate with the presence Oxygen
2.1 Fuel- CHO, Fats

Annotations:

  • At rest: 1/2 CHO, 2/3 Fats CHO are preferable to break down when exercising. Fats require more oxygen so need to perform at a lower intensity
2.2 Rate: Slow

Annotations:

  • Slower due to the full break down of glycogen through both the Krebs Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain (more complex chemical reactions)
2.3 Yield: Large

Annotations:

  • Glycogen releases enough energy to resynthesise 38 ATP in aerobic conditions
  • Triglycerides release enough energy to resynthesise 441 ATP 
2.4 By-Products: Heat, H2O & CO2

Annotations:

  • CO2 & H2O have no fatiguing effects on the body
  • Heat can potentially cause fatigue if preventative measures aren't put in place, such as rehydration and wearing appropriate clothing
2.5 Fatiguing factors: Glycogen Depletion & elevated body temperature

Annotations:

  • Glycogen Depletion o  Considered a fatiguing factor after 60mins of continuous exercise o  Restored through replenishment during and postexercise bout (best results with high GI in first 30mins after) o  Will ‘Hit the wall’ 2-3hrs into an endurance event  
  • Elevated body Temperature Causes fatigue via o  Less oxygen being delivered to the working muscles § Due to an increase in blood being sent to the skin for thermoregulation § Results in an increase in Q & HR § Results in a greater reliance on AnaerobicbGlycolysis ES, meaning a build up of Metabolic by-products  
2.6 Intensity: Submaximal

Annotations:

  • Aerobic training zone is considered 70-85% max HR Also dominant during maximal efforts after prolonged bouts of exercise
2.7 Duration: Long

Annotations:

  • Dominant: 30/45+ secs Peak: 1-1.5 mins
2.8 Recovery: Active
2.9 Example activities

Annotations:

  • Any event lasting longer than 90secs 1500m running race AFL football player 400m swim
3 Energy System Interplay

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