Science EOC Study Map: SC.912.N.1.1

Becca T.
Mind Map by Becca T., updated more than 1 year ago
Becca T.
Created by Becca T. almost 5 years ago


Curriculum Requirements: Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge. For example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science.

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Science EOC Study Map: SC.912.N.1.1
1 Observation vs. Inference: In an OBSERVATION, you use one or more of your five senses to know or determine something. In an INFERENCE, you make an explanation for the observation.
1.1 An example of an OBSERVATION would be that you see steam rising over a cup of tea. This is an OBSERVATION because you are using your senses to determine this. An INFERENCE would be saying that the tea is hot, because you have used your observation to reach a conclusion.
2 There are three types of variables in most science experiments: the INDEPENDENT, DEPENDENT, and CONTROL variables
2.1 An INDEPENDENT variable is the variable that is being changed. It is also known as the test variable. In a valid scientific experiment, there is only ONE independent variable.
2.2 A CONTROLLED variable is a variable that remains constant and unchanged. The CONTROL variable can also be compared to determine how much of an impact that the independent variable had.
2.3 A DEPENDENT variable is the variable being measured. It is the variable that is being observed when the independent variable is being changed.
3.1 A HYPOTHESIS is an educated guess, based on observation. Usually, a hypothesis can be supported or disproved through experimentation or more observation. A HYPOTHESIS can be proved false, but can't be proven true.
3.1.1 Example: If you have two or more brands of laundry detergent and you see no difference in their cleaning ability, you might hypothesize that the cleaning effectiveness isn't affected by what detergent you use. This can be proven false (if you notice that one detergent isn't as effective, for instance), but cannot be proven true, because even if you test 100 different detergents, there might be one out there that's different.
3.2 A scientific THEORY summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. Theories explain why an event takes place. Theories are valid as long as there isn't evidence to prove it false.
3.2.1 Example: Let's use the Big Bang Theory. This theory states that the universe began as a small point of condensed energy and then rapidly expanded, making a big bang. The reason why this is considered as a THEORY is because it explains why or how something happened. For example, this theory explains how the universe expanded.
3.3 A scientific LAW generalizes a group of hypotheses. Scientific laws explain that something happens, but they don't describe why. There are no exceptions to a scientific law.
3.3.1 Example: In Newton's First Law of Motion, it states that objects in motion stay in motion unless another force stops it. The reason why this is considered as a LAW and not a theory is because it doesn't describe why it happens. We know that this will always happen, so if we find new evidence on why this occurs, the law will stay true.
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