Types of Rocks

Mind Map by lloyd.richards98, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lloyd.richards98 almost 5 years ago


Cambridge IGCSE Geography (Rocks) Mind Map on Types of Rocks, created by lloyd.richards98 on 03/30/2015.

Resource summary

Types of Rocks
1 Igneous
1.1 Formation
1.1.1 Formed by the cooling of molten magma caused by volcanic activity Magma cools underground > Intrusive Magma cools on ground surface > Extrusive
1.2 Characteristics
1.2.1 Crystalline Made up of interlocking crystals
1.2.2 Tough, Hard, Resistant to Erosion
1.3 Examples
1.3.1 Granite Widely used for construction and monuments
1.3.2 Basalt
2 Metamorphic
2.1 Formation
2.1.1 Formed within the Earth's crust
2.1.2 When another rock is changed by huge amounts of heat and pressure
2.2 Characteristics
2.2.1 Often exhibit layering called cleavage
2.2.2 Tough and resistant to erosion
2.3 Examples
2.3.1 Slate SHALE (Sedimentary) > SLATE (Metamorphic) Used for roofing
2.3.2 Marble LIMESTONE (Sedimentary) > MARBLE (Metamorphic) Used for buildings and ornate statues
3 Sedimentary
3.1 Formation
3.1.1 Sediment eroded from land by wind/rivers/ice is deposited in the sea
3.1.2 LITHIFACTION Sediment is compacted on the sea bed until it forms layers of solid rocks
3.2 Characteristics
3.2.1 Usually found in layers called BEDS
3.2.2 Normally weaker than other rocks Some i.e. Limestone are tough
3.2.3 Vertical Joints, Horizontal Bedding Planes
3.3 Examples
3.3.1 Limestone Used in cement and glass
3.3.2 Chalk Formed from COCCOLITHS Used to make quicklime and mortar
3.3.3 Sandstone Consists of Sand particles Used in construction
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