Changing Urban Environments

Sophie McCammon
Mind Map by Sophie McCammon, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn about 5 years ago
Sophie McCammon
Copied by Sophie McCammon about 5 years ago


AQA Urban Changing Urban Environments Specification Overview

Resource summary

Changing Urban Environments
1 Global Urbanisation
1.1 Pace of urbanisation
1.1.1 Rich world 80% of the UK live in urban areas
1.1.2 Poor world Fastest urbanisation here 25% of Bangladesh live in urban areas
1.2 Causes
1.2.1 Rural-urban migration People move from rural to urban areas Rich Push factors Agricultures revolution - machinery replaced labour jobs Pull factors Redevelopment of run-down areas - new houses Poor Push factors Shortage of services (education) Pull factors more jobs in urban areas
2 Land use
2.1 Functional zones
2.1.1 CBD - Central Business District City centre
2.1.2 Inner city Corner shopd
2.1.3 Outer city/ suburbs Shopping parades (short rows of shops)
2.1.4 Rural-urban fringe Out-of-town shopping centre
2.1.5 Villages Village shops
2.2 High order goods (comparison goods)
2.2.1 only bought occasionally and are more expensive
2.3 Low order goods
2.3.1 bought frequently and are quite cheap
3 Rich World Urban Issues
3.1 1. Housing
3.1.1 Solutions Brownfield Development Building on land which is not used anymore. Stops green space being used up Greenfield Development
3.1.2 Increasing number of households needed
3.2 2. Inner city decline
3.2.1 Urban Development corporations LDDC
3.2.2 City Challenge Regeneration
3.2.3 Sustainable communities
3.3 3. Traffic
3.3.1 Park-and-ride schemes
3.3.2 Congestion charge
3.3.3 Pedestrianisation
3.3.4 Bus priority lanes
3.4 4. CBD decline
3.4.1 Converting old buildings into housing blocks
3.4.2 Pedestrianising (stopping car access
3.4.3 Improving access
3.4.4 Improving public areas
3.5 5. Cultural mix
3.5.1 Segregation Solutions Everyone can access info and services (multi-language leaflets) Improving communication so leaders of ethnicities make decisions Providing interpreters Suitable services for different cultures Different ethnicities not mixing Reasons People prefer to live close to others with same background/language People live near services that are important to their culture People are restricted to where they can live (lack of money)
4 Squatter Settlement Issues
4.1 Living in sqatter settlements
4.1.1 No basic services like running water, sewers or electricity
4.1.2 Many work within the settlements Informal sector - long hours, little pay - cash in hand
4.1.3 Life expectancy is lower
4.1.4 Jobs aren't taxed/ monitored by the government
4.1.5 Strong community spirit
4.2 Improvement strategies
4.2.1 Self help schemes Government and local people working together. The government provide the building materials and the locals build houses
4.2.2 Site and service Locals pay rent for the site and can borrow money from the government for building materials and improvements
4.2.3 Local authority schemes Funded by the local and are about improving temporary accomodation
4.3 Built illegally around a city - Rural - urban migrants
5 Problems of Rapid Urbanisation - Poor World
5.1 Problems
5.1.1 Air pollution - burning fuels by factories and cars
5.1.2 Water pollution - pollutants from cities onto rivers and streams which can cause health problems and harm wildlife
5.1.3 Waste and pollution - damage health and environment
5.2 Solutions
5.2.1 Waste disposal/ recycling
5.2.2 Air pollution limits
5.2.3 Sewage treatment plants and laws for factories to remove pollutants
6 Sustainable Urban Living
6.1 Features of sustainable cities
6.1.1 Conserving historic & natural environment
6.1.2 Reducing & disposing of waste
6.1.3 Adequate open spaces
6.1.4 Involving local people
6.1.5 Providing efficient transport
6.1.6 Building on brownfield sites
6.1.7 Building carbon neutral homes
6.1.8 Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it
7 Counter Urbanisation
7.1 Happening in rich countries
7.2 People move out of cities into rural areas
7.3 Push Factors
7.3.1 Pollution in city
7.3.2 high crime rate
7.3.3 Houses are expensive
7.4 Pull factors
7.4.1 Transport (private cars
7.4.2 Work from home (IT)
7.4.3 more jobs
7.5 Rural impacts
7.5.1 house prices increase
7.5.2 Local shops shut down
7.5.3 decline in community spirit
7.6 Urban impacts
7.6.1 Inner city areas become disused and run down
7.6.2 CBD businesses lose cutermers and close
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