Antibiotics 1

Trisha Fortin
Mind Map by Trisha Fortin, updated more than 1 year ago
Trisha Fortin
Created by Trisha Fortin almost 5 years ago
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Description

First antibiotics lecture
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Resource summary

Antibiotics 1
1 Antimetabolites
1.1 SULFONAMIDE

Annotations:

  • Synergy with trimethoprim leads to bacteriocidal effect
1.1.1 Competitively inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase
1.1.2 Pregnancy, nephrotox, hemolysis

Annotations:

  • Cross placenta
1.2 TRIMETHOPRIM

Annotations:

  • Synergy with sulfonamide often make bacteriocidal effect
1.2.1 Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
1.3 Bacteriostatic
2 Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors
2.1 PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS
2.1.1 Block transpeptidase rxn

Annotations:

  • by binding penicillin binding proteins
2.1.2 Very safe!

Annotations:

  • We don't have these proteins in our cell walls
2.1.3 Penicillin G - neurotox

Annotations:

  • From non-specific irritation
2.1.4 Least toxic, most allergenic
2.2 VANCOMYCIN, BACITRACIN
2.2.1 Block early steps in synthesis
2.2.2 Toxic to kidneys
2.3 CYCLOSERINE
2.3.1 Blocks alanine racemase
3 Cell Membrane Affectors
3.1 POLYMYXINS
3.1.1 Form pores
3.1.2 Bind phosphatidyl ethanolamine-rich areas of membrane
3.1.3 Highly toxic to kidneys

Annotations:

  • We have phosphatidyl ethanolamine in our membranes Why these are toxic
3.1.4 CHOLISTINS

Annotations:

  • Currently being made
4 Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
4.1 Aminoglycosides
4.1.1 Bind to 30S
4.1.2 Bacteriocidal
4.1.3 STREPTOMYCIN
4.1.3.1 Pregnancy

Annotations:

  • 8th cranial nerve damage Skeletal defects
4.1.4 Nephrotox, neurotox

Annotations:

  • Neurotox in infants
4.2 TETRACYCLINES
4.2.1 Blocks tRNA binding 30S
4.2.2 Bacteriostatic
4.2.3 Pregnancy, liver tox, neurotox

Annotations:

  • Hypoplasia of fetal teeth & bones in fetus Cataracts in fetus Neurotox in infants
4.3 CHLORAMPHENICOL, ERYTHROMYCIN, CLINDAMYCIN
4.3.1 Bind 50S
4.3.2 Inhibit chain elongation
4.3.3 CHLOR - pregnancy, inhibits P450, toxic to marrow/hemolysis

Annotations:

  • Crosses placenta
4.3.4 CHLOR - phenytoin, coumadin

Annotations:

  • Inhibits their breakdown
5 Nucleic Acid Inhibitors
5.1 RIFAMPIN
5.1.1 Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
5.1.1.1 Inhibits RNA synthesis
5.1.2 Birth control pills

Annotations:

  • Enhances breakdown
5.2 Quinolones
5.2.1 CIPROFLOXACIN
5.2.1.1 Blocks DNA gyrase
5.3 METRONIDAZOLE
5.3.1 Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis
6 Synergy
6.1 GOOD
6.1.1 Sulfonamide + trimethoprim
6.1.2 Isoniazid + rifampin
6.1.2.1 Treat TB
6.1.3 Penicillin + aminoglycoside

Annotations:

  • Penicillin stops cell wall formation Allows aminoglycosides to get inside
6.1.3.1 Mixed infections
6.1.3.2 Prophylaxis
6.1.4 Trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole
6.1.4.1 Treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

Annotations:

  • In people with AIDS
6.1.5 Bactericidal + bactericidal or bacteriostatic + bacteriostatic
6.2 BAD
6.2.1 Bactericidal + bacteriostatic
6.2.2 Penicillin + tetracycline
7 Side Effects
7.1 GI

Annotations:

  • C. diff -> fatal colitis Nausea & vomiting
7.2 Liver tox
7.2.1 Isoniazid
8 Cross-sensitivity can occur

Annotations:

  • Antibiotics act as haptens (give immune response when attached to large molecule)
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