Marx on Alienation

Anna Black
Mind Map by Anna Black, updated more than 1 year ago
Anna Black
Created by Anna Black about 5 years ago


Degree Marxism (Marx on Alienation (Feuerbach and Freedom)) Mind Map on Marx on Alienation, created by Anna Black on 04/03/2015.

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Marx on Alienation
1 Introduction
1.1 'Economic + Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844' Marx
1.2 Focusing = 1st + 3rd manuscript.
1.3 1st Manuscript = Marx develops this theory through explaining how, under capitalism, more people rely on 'labour' to live.
1.4 Theory of alienation = describes the alienation of people = aspects - their human nature from living in society formed in social classes.
1.5 In the later Marx developed foundations of his theory of alienation from works of Ludwig Feuerbach..
1.6 'Towards Critique of Hegels Philosophy of Right: Introduction
1.7 3rd Manuscript = Marx defines meaning of human requirement and praises Feuerbachs critique of Hegel.
1.8 To show this Marx develops 4 types of alienation.
2 1st Manuscript (Marx Development Alienated Labour)
2.1 2. Alienation - worker from working - from act of producing.
2.1.1 Work worker performs doesn't belong to worker. Is a means of survival worker is forced to do for someone else. Therefore - working activity doesn't come from creativity... But exists outside of him and reveals a loss of identity.
2.2 1. Alienation - worker from work - from product of labour.
2.2.1 Marx = work makes human 'it fulfils our species essence' it allows = creative + flourish. But in 19th century Europe = work destroyed workers, particularly those who- nothing to sell but labour. (Working Class) Economic system of private ownership, society divided 2 classes: property owners + property-less workers. In this form workers don't only suffer = being poor, but also = alienation from world. Alienation happens because worker can't relate to product of his work. Worker puts life into object + his labour = invested into object... But because worker doesn't have connection = product he becomes more alienated more he produced, under capitalism. Everything - makes goes to world - doesn't belong to.
2.3 3. Alienation worker from himself- as a producer.
2.3.1 For human beings work = life purpose. Process of transforming goods makes up the identity of a human being. But in private ownership and division of labour worker = alienated from these 2 things.
2.4 4. Alienation worker from other workers.
2.4.1 Since the workers product is owned by someone else, worker sees this person = capitalist as alien + hostile. The worker feels alienated from + hostile towards system = private property. Through- capitalist appropriates both object of production for own enrichment... and workers identity + wholeness as human being.
3 Third Manuscript
3.1 In capitalist society, human needs = defined by system of private ownership.
3.1.1 Instead of mere food, clothing and shelter, human beings need money. Capitalism holds different needs, different social classes it creates. As capitalists gain more wealth = needs become more refined. This means = workers forced adjust needs downwards, making them = bare minimum, system pays them to stay alive. In this system, the worker becomes conscious = of miserable status in relation to the capitalist. Solution to alienation = communism. Which gets rid of system of private property.
3.2 Marx agrees with Feuerbach's critique of Hegel.
3.2.1 Feuerbach claims religion = reflection of human alienation stemming from hostile relationships. Marx agrees Feuerbach's criticism against Hegel from privileging religious belief. Hegel correctly identifies labour: essence of man, but mistakenly defines it: mental activity when its physical labour.
3.3 Hegel = most evolved state of self-consciousness = self-objectification that carries with it the experience of alienation.
3.3.1 The function of religion, civil society + state = enable objectified self consciousness subject to feel at home in the world. Marx, however sees this as movement away from nature and towards reliance on institutions in order to improve alienation as a mistake. For Marx, alienation results from isolation from nature. In Religious experience the subject finds confirmation of his alienation he doesn't negate it. Human beings are motivated by their relationship to natural objects through their senses. This is the essence of human experience. Human beings seek self realization by transforming natural objects. When, however man is estranged from nature, one is estranged from oneself.
4 Marx on Feuerbach
4.1 It is here Marx sets out his account of religion.
4.1.1 In terms of religion, marx accepted Feurbachs claim that humans have created God. Feuerbach additionally argued that worshipping God alienated human beings from enjoying own human powers. However Marx criticises Feuerbach account as hes failed to understand why people fall into religious alienation. Marx claims religion is response to alienation in material life. Therefore can't be removed until human material is liberated. There are 2 aspects of alienation responsible for creating religion. 1. Alienated Labour 2. Need Humans assert there communal essence. Humans exist in community + what makes Human life possible = economic relations.
4.2 Marx states we must acknowledge communal existence in institutions.
4.2.1 At firs it is though religion which creates false community. Then when we get rid of religion, the state fills this gap. But state and religion = be upstaged when community social and economic equal created.
5 'On James Mill'
5.1 Here non-alienated labour is described such that a persons immediate enjoyment of production is seen as evidence of there powers.
5.1.1 Also described as meeting needs of others - therefore confirming human essence and mutual dependence.
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