Beta-Lactams

Trisha Fortin
Mind Map by Trisha Fortin, updated more than 1 year ago
Trisha Fortin
Created by Trisha Fortin almost 5 years ago
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Description

Medical Pharmacology Mind Map on Beta-Lactams, created by Trisha Fortin on 04/04/2015.

Resource summary

Beta-Lactams
1 Penicillins
1.1 PENICILLIN G
1.1.1 Repository

Annotations:

  • Used for syphilis
1.1.2 All routes
1.2 PENICILLIN V
1.2.1 Oral only
1.3 Inhibit transpeptidases
1.4 Activate autolysins
1.5 NOT effective against dormant bacteria

Annotations:

  • need to be dividing
1.6 Gram+

Annotations:

  • Broad spectrum also kill gram-
1.6.1 Kill cocci, syphilis, Bacillis anthracis
1.7 Resistance
1.7.1 beta-lactamases

Annotations:

  • inactivate the antibiotic by cleaving the beta-lactam ring
1.7.1.1 Penicillinase-resistant penicillins
1.7.1.1.1 NAFCILLIN
1.7.1.1.2 OXACILLIN
1.7.1.1.3 DICLOXACILLIN
1.7.1.1.4 CLOXACILLIN
1.7.2 PBPs w/ low affinity for antibiotic
1.8 Gram-

Annotations:

  • ONLY broad-spectrum
1.8.1 AMPICILLIN
1.8.1.1 G- meningitis
1.8.2 CARBENICILLIN
1.8.2.1 Pseudomonas, ampicillin-resistants
1.8.3 Lipophilic side chains
1.9 Allergy, heart failure

Annotations:

  • Allergy acute/accelerated/delayed.  Acute = anaphylaxis Heart failure from sodium salts
1.10 Excreted
2 Cephalosporins
2.1 No repository form
2.2 Inhibit transpeptidases
2.3 Kill gram+ cocci, gram- bacilli
2.4 Resistance
2.4.1 Cephalosporinases
2.4.2 Can use against penicillin-resistant bacteria
2.5 1st Gen
2.5.1 Inexpensive
2.5.2 Surgery prophylaxis
2.5.3 CEFAZOLIN
2.6 2nd Gen
2.6.1 For stuff resistant to penicillin
2.7 3rd Gen

Annotations:

  • Cefixime, Ceftriaxone...
2.7.1 Gram- meningitis

Annotations:

  • gets into CSF
2.7.2 Gonorrhea
2.8 4th Gen
2.8.1 CEFEPIME
2.8.2 Penetrates CSF
2.8.3 Haemophilus, Neisseria
2.9 Treat klebsiella
2.10 Allergy, bleeding disorders

Annotations:

  • More susceptible if allergic to penicillins Reverse bleeding with vitamin K
2.11 Alcohol

Annotations:

  • Can cause disulfiram reactions
2.12 5th Gen
2.12.1 Ceftaroline
2.12.1.1 MRSAs
3 Monobactams
3.1 Made by G- bacteria
3.2 AZTERONAM
3.2.1 Against G-

Annotations:

  • pseudomonas, serratia, e. coli
3.2.2 NOT against G+
4 Made by fungi

Annotations:

  • except monobactams
5 Carbapenems
5.1 IMIPENEM
5.2 Used for serious infections

Annotations:

  • G+ and G- mixes
5.3 Use with CILASTATIN

Annotations:

  • Stops metabolism in renal tubule
5.4 Seizures
6 Beta-lactamase Inhibitors
6.1 Potentiate antibiotics, prevent breakdown
6.2 CLAVULANIC ACID
6.3 SULBACTAM, TAZOBACTAM
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