Treatments of abnormality

lucile
Mind Map by lucile, updated more than 1 year ago
lucile
Created by lucile almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Treatments of abnormality, created by lucile on 04/07/2015.

Resource summary

Treatments of abnormality
1 Biological
1.1 Drugs
1.1.1 Anti-depressants
1.1.1.1 Block enzymes that break down neurotransmitters to reduce serotonin levels e.g Prozac
1.1.2 Anti-psychotic
1.1.2.1 Block action of neurotransmitters to reduce dopamine levels e.g Clozapine
1.1.3 Anti-anxiety
1.1.3.1 Known as Antiolytics, they slow down activity in CNS to reduce anxiety e.g Valium
1.2 ECT
1.2.1 Electro-covulsive therapy- Involves putting an electrical current through the brain either in one (unilateral)hemisphere or two (bilateral)
1.3 Evaluation
1.3.1 - Most drugs have severe side effects, and can be addictive
1.3.2 -There are ethical issues as the patient may not give fully informed consent due to delusions which as common in abnormal disorders
1.3.3 +Drugs effectively suppress symptoms, however - - this does not deal with cause therefore symptoms may return in 80% of patients
2 Behavioural
2.1 This model suggests to treat a patient the abnormal behaviour needs to be unlearned this can be done by breaking an association...(based on reciprocal inhibition)
2.1.1 SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION
2.1.1.1 1. relaxation 2. hierarchy 3.In vitro 4. in vivo
2.2 Evalutaion
2.2.1 +Ethical as patient is fully aware, and exposure is gradual which avoid great discomfort. Therefore can be used on children
2.2.2 +Successful in many phobias e.g spider and injection = 60-90% success rates..- However, are less successful for evolutionary based phobias
2.2.3 -Does not resolve underlying problem, but suppresses symptoms. This leads to symptom substitution
2.2.4 -Treatment is time consuming which could lead to attrition, thus the problem is not solved
3 Psychodynamic
3.1 Aim- to uncover repressed material
3.2 Based on anxiety being rooted in early childhood experiences.. to expose this therapists can use..
3.2.1 Free association... express anything, no censoring
3.2.2 Dream analysis ... royal road to unconscious
3.2.3 Projective tests e.g ink blot test... client impress thoughts onto stimulus
3.3 Evaluation
3.3.1 -Ethical issues as client may be confronted with uncomfortable topics
3.3.2 -Therapist may impose 'false memories'
3.3.3 -Limited applications patient may refuse to talk
3.3.4 -Heavily based on therapist interpretation therefore very subjective and could lead to unreliable diagnosis
3.3.5 + The evaluation of this therapy has led to the development of CBT which is a very successful method.e.g 80% success
4 Cognitive
4.1 Maladaptive behaviour leads to irrational thinking process and fault processes
4.1.1 ABC model,......... rational thinking is taught which leads to more positive reactions
4.1.2 Becks' cognitive therapy,....... Negative thinking is monitored e.g is it pragmatic, empirical, logical?
4.2 Evalutaion
4.2.1 -Does not deal with the cause of the problem, however does give a long term solution how to deal with it
4.2.2 +Appropriate for all ages, even patients who are not truly 'ill' can be treated as there are not side effects
4.2.3 +Very effective, as is 80% effective which is much greater than other treatments
4.2.4 -However not everyone may want to talk, therefore limited
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