The Widening of the Cold War 1949-1955 PART 1

James Burns
Mind Map by James Burns, updated more than 1 year ago
James Burns
Created by James Burns almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on The Widening of the Cold War 1949-1955 PART 1, created by James Burns on 04/10/2015.

Resource summary

The Widening of the Cold War 1949-1955 PART 1
1 US containment in action in Asia
1.1 KEY DATES
1.1.1 1949-Aug: The USSR tests its first nuclear weapon
1.1.1.1 1949-Sept: Truman approves NSC-68
1.1.1.1.1 1950-Jan: The idea of a strategic perimeter is suggested
1.1.1.1.1.1 1950-Feb: China forms a military alliance with the USSR
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1950- April: NSC-68 is presented
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1950-Nov: China joins North Korea in its war against South Korea
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1951-Sept: The San Francisco Peace Treaty between the USA and Japan is signed
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1953-Jan: Eisenhower becomes US president
2 The reconstruction of post-war Japan
2.1 1947- USA introduces the 'reverse course' towards Japan
2.1.1 This policy showed that the US wanted to develop and instigate democratic institutions and practices into Japan instead of punishing them for the war
2.1.1.1 This sparked the USA's influence in Asia
2.1.1.2 The USA targeted communists and their sympathisers rather than suspected war criminals in Japan (tried to remove communism)
2.1.1.2.1 Economic Stabilisation was important in Japan for the US, the US achieved this by
2.1.1.2.1.1 Increasing Trade and foreign exchange Regulation
2.1.1.2.1.2 Price and Wage controls
2.1.1.2.1.3 Efficient taxing and a balanced budget
2.1.1.2.1.4 Stricter lending criteria
2.1.1.2.1.5 This was created by Detroit banker Joseph Dodge.
2.1.1.2.1.5.1 (economic adviser to SCAP and responsible for the plan)
2.1.1.2.1.6 Sadly led to unemployment due to business closures
2.1.1.2.1.7 Japan then joined GATT which strengthened their trade with the west
2.1.1.2.1.7.1 (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
2.1.1.2.1.7.2 GATT was made by the UN at the end of WW2. Managed international trade and minimised tariffs and duties to maximise trade
3 US/Japanese relations
3.1 in February 1950, Mao Zedong (Communist China's leader) formed a military alliance with the USSr. In November, China joined North Korea in the war against the south
3.1.1 Led to a worldwide containment of communism for the USA and meant that they had to commit to supporting various countries around the world. (working like a global policemen even though that was the UN's job)
3.1.1.1 Suddenly Japan became crucial for the USA's containment of communism in the East. This led to Japan's Prime MInister and Dulles signing a treaty that would provide security for Japan
4 San Francisco Peace Treaty, September 1951
4.1 The Treaty Didn't:
4.1.1 Place restrictions on Japan's economy
4.1.1.1 Place significant restrictions on its future political model
4.1.1.1.1 Impose reparation payments for the states owned by Japan
4.1.1.1.1.1 NSC-68
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 In September 1949, the USSR tested its own atomic bomb.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Triggered a fundamental review of the USA's strategic objectives and priorities
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Basically made the USA increase its power (more testing of atomic bombs and stuff)
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Led to military emphasis on the application of containment.
4.1.2 Identify Japan's responsibility for the war
4.1.2.1 Restrict Japan's future rearmament
4.2 The Treaty Did:
4.2.1 recognise the full sovereignty of the Japanese people
4.2.1.1 Force Japan to renounce any claims of neighbouring territories
4.2.1.1.1 USA to have unrestricted use of Military bases in Japan
4.2.1.1.1.1 US received Control of Owkinawa
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 The US were allowed to use military force during any disorder in Japan
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 The right to reject Japan offering military bases to other states
5 Japan's rearmament
5.1 Japan trained a 75,000 strong national police reserve to be trained by the US military (for defence)
5.1.1 By August 1952, the Japanese government established a force of 110,000 ground troops and 7600 maritime personal known as the NSA (National Safety Agency)
5.1.1.1 Eisenhower increased the Japanese ground force and invested $240 million into Japan
5.1.1.2 This was caused by the US' fear of communism in Korea
5.1.1.2.1 The USA aimed at avoiding any consequences that could lead to instability
5.1.1.2.1.1 USA's support for Jiang Jieshi and policy towards China and Taiwan
5.1.1.2.1.1.1 1949- Jiang Jieshi's nationalist force's(KMT) loss during the Chinese Civil War seemed inevitable
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Mao considered US intervention but realised that it wouldn't happen due to their interest in Asia
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 In June 1949, the Chinese Communist Party announced its allegiance to the USSR
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 The USA's strategy towards China was defined in the China White Paper in July 1949.
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Dean G. Acheson (George Marshall's successor as Secretary of State, was committed to supporting the KMT in Taiwan. This was done secretly in order to not alert China.
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Acheson wanted the USA to do nothing that might reinforce a Sino-Soviet alliance. Supporting the nationalists in Taiwan was a means to end the CCP
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Defensive Perimeter Strategy
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Acheson tried to move the USA's policies towards the Far East's military security of the pacific in the earl 1950's.
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He argued the military defence of Japan was the responsibility of the USA
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 This was achieved in the 'defensive perimeter' which was defined in January 1950 in advance of the sino-soviet treaty.
5.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Acheson's Defensive Perimeter Strategy was criticised for omitting Korea in the defensive cordon.
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