Periodicity

Amina.M
Mind Map by Amina.M, updated more than 1 year ago
Amina.M
Created by Amina.M about 5 years ago
27
3

Description

Summary mind map of all the important aspects of the Periodicity in IB Chemistry; both Standard Level and Higher Level. Made to meet all of the assessment criteria.

Resource summary

Periodicity
1 The Periodic Table

Annotations:

  • -Elements are arranged in order of increasing size
1.1 Group

Annotations:

  • -vertical column -each group shares chemical properties -group number indicates number of valence electrons
1.2 Period

Annotations:

  • -horizontal row -period indicates number of electron shells
2 Physical Properties
2.1 Atomic Radius

Annotations:

  • -decrease across period -increase down group -occurs due to shielding effect
2.1.1 Shielding Effect

Annotations:

  • =a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces of the nucleus on its valence electrons -The greater the shielding effect, the less electron attraction and the lower the ionisation energy
2.2 Ionic Radius

Annotations:

  • -increase down -decrease (staggered) across
2.2.1 Cations

Annotations:

  • -decrease compared to atoms -decrease across period
2.2.2 Anions

Annotations:

  • -increase compared to atom -decrease across period
2.3 Ionization Energy

Annotations:

  • -the minimum energy needed to remove an electron from 1 mol of gaseous atoms -is positive as it's an endothermic process -depends on: distance between electrons and nucleus, size of the positive nuclear charge by inner electrons and the shielding effect from the nuclear charge -the greater the ionisation energies in an atom, the more stable the electron configuration
2.4 Electronegativity

Annotations:

  • -The ability for an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons, measured relative to fluorine -increase across as radius decreases across and positive nuclear charge increases -decrease down as no.main energy levels increases
2.5 Melting Points

Annotations:

  • -depends on structure of element and type of attractive forces holding the atom together -G1,G2, G3: metallic bond, high melting point, increases across -G4: macromolecular covalent, very strong bond, high melt -G5, G6, G7: simple molecular covalent+weak van der Waals', low melt -G8: monatomic molecules, very weak bonds, very low melt
3 Chemical Properties

Annotations:

  • -Groups share the same chemical properties
3.1 Group 7 - Halogens

Annotations:

  • -react by gaining an electron to form halide ions -good oxidising agents -decrease in reactivity down group -can displace other halide ions if they're more reactive -Test for halide ions: add silver nitrate to form precipitate.  chlorine-white bromine-cream iodine-yellow
3.2 Group 1 - Alkali Metals

Annotations:

  • -Reactivity increases down group -react by losing single valence electron -good reducing agents -react with water to form alkali solution of metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas -react with halogens to form ionic salts -have different reactions with water, increasing in intensity as you go down the group
3.3 Metallic to Non-metallic

Annotations:

  • -metals: shiny, good conductors -G1,G2,G3: good metals -G4: semi-conductor, METALLOID -G5, G6, G7, G8: non-metals -Metal oxides = basic -Non-metal oxides = acidic -Aluminium = amphoteric
4 Trends Across Period 3
4.1 Oxides

Annotations:

  • -Solid to Liquid(2) -Melt: Increase then decrease (turns at Aluminium) -Boil: increase then decrease (highest at MgO) -Electrical: Good(3) to Bad(4) -Structure: ionic(3) to covalent molecular -react with water: alkali(2) to no reaction(2) to acidic solution made(3) -nature: basic(2) - amphoteric(1) - acidic(4)
4.2 Chlorides

Annotations:

  • -State: solid(3) to liquid(3) to gas(1) -Melt: decreasing across -Boil: decreasing (nothing at Al) -Electrical: Good(2) to Poor(1)/None(4) -Structure: Ionic(2) to Simple Covalent Molecular(5) -Reaction with H2O: Dissolve(2) to Produce HCl Fumes(4) to some reaction with water(1) -Nature: Neutral(1) to weak acid(1) to acidic(5)
4.3 First Ionization Energy

Annotations:

  • -ionisation energy increases across period as more energy is needed to remove the electrons -decreases down Groups 1&7
5 Transition Metals

Annotations:

  • -a d-block element that forms at least one stable ion that has a partially filled d-sub-level -characteristics: variable oxidation states, have catalytic properties, make coloured compounds and form complex ions
5.1 Complexes

Annotations:

  • central metal ion surrounded by a number of other molecules or ions; formed usually when transition metals are dissolved water or become hydrated
5.1.1 Ligands

Annotations:

  • A molecule or a negative, which contains a lone pair of electrons which it uses to form a dative bond with the central ion in a complex
5.1.1.1 Coordination Number

Annotations:

  • The number of ligands that are attached to a metal ion
5.2 Coloured Compounds
5.3 Variable Oxidation States

Annotations:

  • -when transition elements lose electrons, they lose 4s electrons first -all have transition state of +2 -ionization energies determines the loss of additional electrons from 3d-sub-shell
5.4 Catalytic Behaviour
5.4.1 Catalst
5.4.1.1 Heterogeneous Catalyst

Annotations:

  • Catalyst is in a different phase from reactants (doesn't take part in the reaction)
5.4.1.2 Homogeneous Catalyst

Annotations:

  • Catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants (can take part in the reaction)
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Using GoConqr to study science
Sarah Egan
Acids and Bases quiz
Derek Cumberbatch
Acids and Bases
Sarah Egan
Ionic Bondic Flashcards.
anjumn10
Electrolysis
lisawinkler10
Chemistry Quiz General -3
lauren_johncock
Chemistry General Quiz - 2
lauren_johncock
AS Chemistry - Enthalpy Changes
Sarah H-V
Acids and Bases
silviaod119
The Periodic Table
asramanathan
Acids, Bases and Salts
asramanathan