Language Change Theorists

Mind Map by BethanMayStevenson, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by BethanMayStevenson almost 6 years ago


A2 Language Mind Map on Language Change Theorists, created by BethanMayStevenson on 04/12/2015.

Resource summary

Language Change Theorists
1 Norman Fairclough
1.1 Conversationalist
1.1.1 Spoken language drives change in written mode
1.2 there have been 'shifting boundaries between written and spoke discourse practises and a rising prestige and status for spoke language'
2 Jean Aitchison
2.1 describes attitudes to language change using metaphors
2.2 parodies of prescriptivism
2.2.1 damp spoon parody
2.2.2 crumbling castle parody
2.2.3 infectious disease parody
3 Dennis Freeborn
3.1 similar to Aitchison
3.1.1 parodies prescriptivism
3.2 describes trends in Spoken language change
3.3 3 main views
3.3.1 incorrectness view all accents are correct compared to SE and RP Freeborn refutes this- RP standard due to fashion and convention
3.3.2 ugliness view some accents don't sound nice linked to stereotypes and negative connotations least-liked accents often found in poorer urban areas
3.3.3 inprecisness view lazy and sloppy accents e.g. estuary English
4 Howard Giles
4.1 Accomodation Theory
4.1.1 Speakers adjust their speech to accomodate others showing need for approval convergence some exaggerated accent in order to distance selves from others, reinforcing identity divergence
5 informalisation
5.1 the general belief that language is getting increasingly informal over time
6 Standardisation
6.1 process that occured throughout late Modern Period where rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar were standardised
6.2 standardised to resemble English as we know it, following printing press and emergence of dictionaries and grammar guides
6.3 context
6.3.1 William Caxton's printing press- 1476
6.3.2 Samuel Johnson's Dictionary- 1755
6.3.3 first fascicle of OED published- 1884
7 Prescriptivism vs Descriptivism
7.1 Prescriptivits
7.1.1 believe that there's a 'correct' way to speak and write English judge non-standard uses as inferior to SE and RP
7.1.2 Jonathan Swift was a prescriptivist
7.2 Descriptivism
7.2.1 describe changes in English using non-judgemental/ neutral terms
7.2.2 David Crystal is a good example of this
8 William Labov (1963)
8.1 'Martha's Vineyard Research'
8.1.1 suggested we subconsciously change our language to suit ourselves with one group rather than another
9 Searle (1976)
9.1 5 different groups of semantics
9.1.1 assertives state/ suggest/ boast
9.1.2 directives order/ demand/ request
9.1.3 commisives promise/ offer
9.1.4 expressives thank/ comiserate
9.1.5 declaratives name things/ appoint
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